Common Name(s): Scots Pine, Scotch pine
Scientific Name: Pinus sylvestris
Distribution: Native to Europe and northern Asia;
Tree Size: 65-115 ft (20-35 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter
Average Dried Weight: 34 lbs/ft3 (550 kg/m3)
Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .39, .55
Janka Hardness: 540 lbf (2,420 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 12,080 lbf/in2 (83.3 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,461,000 lbf/in2 (10.08 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 6,020 lbf/in2 (41.5 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 5.2%, Tangential: 8.3%, Volumetric: 13.6%, T/R Ratio: 1.6
Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light reddish brown, demarcated sapwood is pale yellow to nearly white.
Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a medium, even texture.
Endgrain: Medium sized resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition fairly abrupt, color contrast medium; tracheid diameter medium-large.
Rot Resistance: Heartwood is rated as moderately durable to non-durable regarding decay resistance. Scots Pine is readily treated with preservatives and can thereafter be used in exterior applications such as posts or utility poles.
Workability: Scots Pine is easy to work with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well.
Odor: Scots Pine has a mild, resinous odor when being worked.
Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.
Pricing/Availability: Scots Pine is commonly harvested for construction lumber and pulpwood. Expect prices to be moderate within its natural growing range.
Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, and is reported by the IUCN as being a species of least concern.
Common Uses: Utility poles, posts, boxes/crates, flooring, paper (pulpwood), and construction lumber.
Comments: Scots Pine has an enormous distribution, spanning from Portugal in the west out to eastern Siberia. Consequently, there’s also a great amount of natural variability in terms of density, strength, and appearance because of the wide range of growth conditions for the tree. Trees from colder northern climates tend to produce denser, more finely-textured wood because of their slower growth rates.
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