by Eric Meier

First off, a few brief disclaimers:

  • Aside from a few archery classes I took back in in college, I am neither an archer nor a bowyer.
  • The ideas presented here would apply only to simple or self bows made from a single piece of wood, and may or may not be directly applicable to other types of bows such as composite or laminated bows.

With that being said, I have access to consolidated data on a lot of different kinds of wood. While there are almost endless ways to measure wood strength (which I discuss in more detail in my article World’s Strongest Woods), when you broaden the scope out to all woods worldwide, there are three tests that seem to come up most often. Listed in order of their commonness, they are: modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and crushing strength. Of the three, we will be looking more closely at the first two tests.

Cracking the Code

Archery bows present a somewhat unique challenge in finding the right requirements for the best wood. In the simplest and crudest terms possible, the wood should be able to bend, but not break.

“As a rule of thumb, the best bow materials are those that combine a high specific bending strength with a relatively low specific modulus (Hickman et al. 1947). In general, a good bow is one to which a high force can be applied under a large elastic deformation, which guarantees that a large amount of elastic energy stored during the draw is transferred effectively into kinetic energy of the arrow when the bowstring is released.”[1]Bjurhager, I., Gamstedt, E., Keunecke, D., Niemz, P. & Berglund, L. (2013). Mechanical performance of yew (Taxus baccata L.) from a longbow perspective. Holzforschung, 67(7), 763.

To summarize the above recommendations, the authors call for a wood with “high specific bending strength” (MOR) along with a “relatively low specific modulus” (MOE).

Dealing in the simplest terms:

  1. The modulus of rupture (MOR) measures how easily the wood will break—the higher the number, the harder it is to break or rupture.
  2. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) measures how easily a wood will bend—the higher the number, the more stubborn and stiff it will be.

So in terms of looking at the raw mechanical data of woods, the best bow woods tend to be those that have a low MOE and a high MOR. Stated another way, the best bow woods tend to be those that will bend easily, and not break. This is perhaps an oversimplification, but it is at least a good starting point in evaluating new woods for suitability to use as an archery bow.

Creating a “Bow Index”

Instead of displaying the absolute values of each wood species, I thought it would be an interesting pursuit to come up with a ratio that compares the two pertinent values, MOR and MOE. This would in effect emphasize those woods with the special properties of having a disproportionately high MOR and/or a low MOE.

Given the rationale and requirements, an equation can be formed to roughly assess a wood’s suitability for bow use:

(MOR/MOE) * 1000.
(The added factor of 1000 is simply to bring the number to a more manageable size and avoid dealing with tiny .00XX decimal values.)

For lack of a better term, this ratio will simply be referred to as the wood’s “bow index.” Results are listed in the table below, sorted from highest to lowest bow index.

Bow Index Listing

Bow IndexCommon NameScientific Name
13.06Iron birchBetula schmidtii
12.61Pear HawthornCrataegus calpodendron
11.90African BlackwoodDalbergia melanoxylon
11.61RowanSorbus aucuparia
11.61Lebombo ironwoodAndrostachys johnsonii
11.32VerawoodBulnesia arborea
11.27Pau FerroMachaerium spp.
11.26Pacific YewTaxus brevifolia
11.25MuningaPterocarpus angolensis
11.15Tropical black sageCordia curassavica
11.05Osage orangeMaclura pomifera
10.98River Sheoak                     Casuarina cunninghamiana
10.90GuajayviPatagonula americana
10.85ChinaberryMelia azedarach
10.85Norway mapleAcer platanoides
10.72JutahyDialium guianense
10.68PearPyrus communis
10.57MansoniaMansonia altissima
10.57Turkey OakQuercus cerris
10.57MovinguiDistemonanthus benthamianus
10.52Pau SantoZollernia paraensis
10.52MakoreTieghemella heckelii
10.50Bur OakQuercus macrocarpa
10.49River Red GumEucalyptus camaldulensis
10.47PreciosaAniba canelilla
10.47Western sheoak                     Allocasuarina fraseriana
10.44Siamese RosewoodDalbergia cochinchinensis
10.42Field mapleAcer campestre
10.40Monterey CypressCupressus macrocarpa
10.37Algarrobo BlancoProsopis alba
10.36EtimoeCopaifera salikounda
10.35ZiricoteCordia dodecandra
10.31EkkiLophira alata
10.31English WalnutJuglans regia
10.31Alligator JuniperJuniperus deppeana
10.22BrazilwoodPaubrasilia echinata
10.18Downy BirchBetula pubescens
10.08Crab appleMalus sylvestris
10.08TambootieSpirostachys africana
10.04Black MesquiteProsopis nigra
10.01CurupayAnadenanthera colubrina
10.00Eastern Red CedarJuniperus virginiana
10.00Rough-barked appleAngophora floribunda
9.98Ceylon SatinwoodChloroxylon swietenia
9.94East Indian RosewoodDalbergia latifolia
9.93Rhodesian TeakBaikiaea plurijuga
9.90African PadaukPterocarpus soyauxii
9.89Sycamore mapleAcer pseudoplatanus
9.86Peruvian WalnutJuglans neotropica
9.86Blue AshFraxinus quadrangulata
9.84EbiaraBerlinia spp.
9.82Burma PadaukPterocarpus macrocarpus
9.80Sweet CherryPrunus avium
9.76Nutmeg HickoryCarya myristiciformis
9.74Siberian ElmUlmus pumila
9.72Pau RosaBobgunnia fistuloides
9.72Pau RosaBobgunnia madagascarensis
9.69Brazilian RosewoodDalbergia nigra
9.67LemonwoodCalycophyllum candidissimum
9.63American HornbeamCarpinus caroliniana
9.62TurpentineSyncarpia glomulifera
9.62MoabiBaillonella toxisperma
9.61Rock ElmUlmus thomasii
9.58Shellbark HickoryCarya laciniosa
9.56Chakte KokSimira salvadorensis
9.55Bitternut HickoryCarya cordiformis
9.54AvodireTurraeanthus africanus
9.53European YewTaxus baccata
9.52Prosopis julifloraProsopis juliflora
9.50MalabayabasTristaniopsis decorticata
9.49AfataCordia trichotoma
9.46Black LocustRobinia pseudoacacia
9.46Nigerian pearwoodGuarea cedrata
9.46BosseGuarea spp.
9.44Horse chestnutAesculus hippocastanum
9.43SaffronheartHalfordia scleroxyloa
9.40CongotaliLetestua durissima
9.39BocoteCordia elaeagnoides
9.38Southern Silky OakGrevillea robusta
9.38SissooDalbergia sissoo
9.37African MesquiteProsopis africana
9.37QuinaMyroxylon peruiferum
9.36Oregon White OakQuercus garryana
9.36Gaboon EbonyDiospyros crassiflora
9.35Shagbark HickoryCarya ovata
9.34Oregon AshFraxinus latifolia
9.34IrokoMilicia excelsa
9.29Live OakQuercus virginiana
9.28HollyIlex opaca
9.28Sessile OakQuercus petraea
9.28ChanfutaAfzelia quanzensis
9.25Yellow GumEucalyptus leucoxylon
9.25Grey myrtleBackhousia myrtifolia
9.24HackberryCeltis occidentalis
9.21Texas EbonyEbenopsis ebano
9.19BekakAglaia lawii
9.18MachicheLonchocarpus spp.
9.17ShittimVachellia seyal
9.14BubingaGuibourtia spp.
9.14African WalnutLovoa trichilioides
9.14Japanese LarchLarix kaempferi
9.14Ceylon EbonyDiospyros ebenum
9.13English ElmUlmus procera
9.13Dutch ElmUlmus x hollandica
9.13Pink IvoryBerchemia zeyheri
9.12SapeleEntandrophragma cylindricum
9.12European HornbeamCarpinus betulus
9.12Cedar ElmUlmus crassifolia
9.12English OakQuercus robur
9.12MerbauIntsia bijuga
9.10Scarlet OakQuercus coccinea
9.09ObecheTriplochiton scleroxylon
9.06Amazon RosewoodDalbergia spruceana
9.06Santos MahoganyMyroxylon balsamum
9.06Cascara BuckthornRhamnus purshiana
9.06Macassar EbonyDiospyros celebica
9.06Argentine Osage OrangeMaclura tinctoria
9.05Tamo AshFraxinus mandshurica
9.03PrimaveraRoseodendron donnell-smithii
9.03Yucatan RosewoodDalbergia tucurensis
9.02Chico ZapoteManilkara zapota
9.02Honey LocustGleditsia triacanthos
9.02PyinmaLagerstroemia spp.
8.99Canadian ServiceberryAmelanchier canadensis
8.97Winged ElmUlmus alata
8.91UrundeuvaAstronium urundeuva
8.91UtileEntandrophragma utile
8.91AmendoimPterogyne nitens
8.89Pignut HickoryCarya glabra
8.88Afzelia xylayAfzelia xylocarpa
8.87Overcup OakQuercus lyrata
8.87MangiumAcacia mangium
8.86IdigboTerminalia ivorensis
8.85Okoume / GaboonAucoumea klaineana
8.85ItinProsopis kuntzei
8.84Black PoplarPopulus nigra
8.83GidgeeAcacia cambagei
8.82Black PalmBorassus flabellifer
8.82Wych ElmUlmus glabra
8.82ImbuyaOcotea porosa
8.82CanarywoodCentrolobium spp.
8.81Water HickoryCarya aquatica
8.81American ElmUlmus americana
8.81PersimmonDiospyros virginiana
8.80Queensland WalnutEndiandra palmerstonii
8.80LonghiChrysophyllum africanum
8.79California Black OakQuercus kelloggii
8.78OpepeNauclea diderrichii
8.76Mexican CypressCupressus lusitanica
8.74East African OliveOlea capensis
8.74Post OakQuercus stellata
8.74Pumpkin AshFraxinus profunda
8.73KotoPterygota macrocarpa
8.72Red ElmUlmus rubra
8.72Endra endraHumbertia madagascariensis
8.71Yellow BoxEucalyptus melliodora
8.70AfrormosiaPericopsis elata
8.70DogwoodCornus florida
8.69Black WalnutJuglans nigra
8.67PlumPrunus domestica
8.66American BeechFagus grandifolia
8.65Mockernut HickoryCarya tomentosa
8.65Mountain HemlockTsuga mertensiana
8.64Red MulberryMorus rubra
8.64PaulowniaPaulownia spp.
8.63Hard mapleAcer saccharum
8.63Giant ChinkapinChrysolepis chrysophylla
8.62WengeMillettia laurentii
8.62MopaneColophospermum mopane
8.62White AshFraxinus americana
8.62White MerantiShorea hypochra
8.60LatiAmphimas pterocarpoides
8.58African MahoganyKhaya senegalensis
8.58Swamp White OakQuercus bicolor
8.57Staghorn SumacRhus typhina
8.55Maritime PinePinus pinaster
8.55Virginia PinePinus virginiana
8.55White Cypress PineCallitris columellaris
8.54Swamp MahoganyEucalyptus robusta
8.54AsepokoPouteria guianensis
8.53QuebrachoSchinopsis quebracho
8.52MonkeythornSenegalia galpinii
8.52Gray BirchBetula populifolia
8.51PintobortriPouteria eugenifolia
8.49Green AshFraxinus pennsylvanica
8.48AburaMitragyna ciliata
8.47AfzeliaAfzelia spp.
8.46MadroneArbutus menziesii
8.45MangkonoXanthostemon verdugonianus
8.45CocoboloDalbergia retusa
8.45Brown EbonyLibidibia paraguariensis
8.44Mediterranean CypressCupressus sempervirens
8.44BrownheartVouacapoua americana
8.43Grey BoxEucalyptus moluccana
8.43Suriname IronwoodBocoa prouacensis
8.42Andaman PadaukPterocarpus dalbergioides
8.42White OakQuercus alba
8.41European AshFraxinus excelsior
8.40Amourette (snakewood sapwood)Brosimum guianense
8.40SnakewoodBrosimum guianense
8.40BoxwoodBuxus sempervirens
8.40MgurureCombretum schumannii
8.39KoaAcacia koa
8.39BloodwoodBrosimum rubescens
8.39TamarindTamarindus indica
8.39London plane FSPlatanus x acerifolia
8.39London plane QSPlatanus x acerifolia
8.37BeliJulbernardia pellegriniana
8.36Chestnut OakQuercus prinus
8.36Monkey potLecythis zabucajo
8.35LyptusEucalyptus urograndis
8.34Black wattleAcacia mearnsii
8.34Panga PangaMillettia stuhlmannii
8.33BulletwoodManilkara bidentata
8.32TineoWeinmannia trichosperma
8.32Cape HollyIlex mitis
8.32Monkey PuzzleAraucaria araucana
8.31Black OakQuercus velutina
8.31European alderAlnus glutinosa
8.30MonkeypodSamanea saman
8.30Sweet ChestnutCastanea sativa
8.29Eastern HophornbeamOstrya virginiana
8.29River BirchBetula nigra
8.28Shumard OakQuercus shumardii
8.27Scots Pine (R)Pinus sylvestris
8.27Huon PineLagarostrobos franklinii
8.26Gum ArabicVachellia nilotica
8.26Yellow BirchBetula alleghaniensis
8.26ParicaSchizolobium amazonicum
8.26Black CherryPrunus serotina
8.25Horsetail CasuarinaCasuarina equisetifolia
8.25Smooth-barked appleAngophora costata
8.24Willow OakQuercus phellos
8.23Slash PinePinus elliottii
8.23Sand PinePinus clausa
8.23LimbaTerminalia superba
8.22SneezewoodPtaeroxylon obliquum
8.21Black mapleAcer nigrum
8.21GarapaApuleia leiocarpa
8.21Queensland kauriAgathis robusta
8.20JatobaHymenaea courbaril
8.19MutenyeGuibourtia arnoldiana
8.19Black sirisAlbizia odoratissima
8.19Silver BirchBetula pendula
8.17LancewoodOxandra lanceolata
8.17Red mapleAcer rubrum
8.17Water OakQuercus nigra
8.17Red OakQuercus rubra
8.16Crack WillowSalix fragilis
8.14PericopsisPericopsis mooniana
8.14Indian LaurelTerminalia elliptica
8.14Southern Red OakQuercus falcata
8.13Grey IronbarkEucalyptus paniculata
8.13Northern White CedarThuja occidentalis
8.12Parana PineAraucaria angustifolia
8.12Cedar of LebanonCedrus libani
8.10NarraPterocarpus indicus
8.09Pin OakQuercus palustris
8.08Mora (glued)Mora excelsa
8.08MoraMora gonggrijpii
8.07Lemon-Scented GumCorymbia citriodora
8.06RaminGonystylus spp.
8.06WamaraSwartzia benthamiana
8.06NargustaTerminalia amazonia
8.05OhiaMetrosideros collina
8.04TanoakNotholithocarpus densiflorus
8.04SassafrasSassafras albidum
8.03Southern RedcedarJuniperus silicicola
8.03Honduran MahoganySwietenia macrophylla
8.02Angelim vermelhoDinizia excelsa
8.02IpeHandroanthus serratifolius
8.01PurpleheartPeltogyne spp.
8.00Black TupeloNyssa sylvatica
8.00Southern MagnoliaMagnolia grandiflora
7.99European silver firAbies alba
7.99Laurel OakQuercus laurifolia
7.99Cuban MahoganySwietenia mahogani
7.98HububaliLoxopterygium sagotii
7.97Blackheart SassafrasAtherosperma moschatum
7.97African JuniperJuniperus procera
7.94Cherrybark OakQuercus pagoda
7.93KaneelhartLicaria canella
7.93AndirobaCarapa spp.
7.92RubberwoodHevea brasiliensis
7.92PecanCarya illinoinensis
7.92MyrtleUmbellularia californica
7.91GreenheartChlorocardium rodiei
7.90TeakTectona grandis
7.88Black AshFraxinus nigra
7.87Radiata PinePinus radiata
7.87PheasantwoodSenna siamea
7.86MessmateEucalyptus obliqua
7.86Patula PinePinus patula
7.85Swamp Chestnut OakQuercus michauxii
7.84CumaruDipteryx odorata
7.84Red PalmCocos nucifera
7.82Yellow CedarCupressus nootkatensis
7.81Peroba RosaAspidosperma polyneuron
7.81Silver mapleAcer saccharinum
7.80Tiete RosewoodGuibourtia hymenaeifolia
7.79Sweet BirchBetula lenta
7.78Limber PinePinus flexilis
7.78Tasmanian MyrtleLophozonia cunninghamii
7.77Northern CatalpaCatalpa speciosa
7.76Spanish CedarCedrela odorata
7.76Australian Red CedarToona ciliata
7.74PaldaoDracontomelon dao
7.74Paper BirchBetula papyrifera
7.73Red BloodwoodCorymbia gummifera
7.72Black WillowSalix nigra
7.71Water TupeloNyssa aquatica
7.70European BeechFagus sylvatica
7.69Incense CedarCalocedrus decurrens
7.67MangoMangifera indica
7.65Brazilian Pau RosaAniba rosaeodora
7.64Caribbean PinePinus caribaea
7.63BoxelderAcer negundo
7.63European LarchLarix decidua
7.62SweetgumLiquidambar styraciflua
7.62Rose GumEucalyptus grandis
7.62Grey alderAlnus incana
7.59Hormigo NegroPlatymiscium dimorphandrum
7.58West African albiziaAlbizia ferruginea
7.58AnigrePouteria altissima
7.57Yellow MerantiShorea spp.
7.56BelahCasuarina cristata
7.56ThuyaTetraclinis articulata
7.55Pitch PinePinus rigida
7.54New Guinea WalnutDracontomelon mangiferum
7.54Pacific mapleAglaia cucullata
7.54KataloxSwartzia cubensis
7.54EveussKlainedoxa gabonensis
7.53OvangkolGuibourtia ehie
7.53SourwoodOxydendrum arboreum
7.50Jeffrey PinePinus jeffreyi
7.50ZebrawoodMicroberlinia brazzavillensis
7.49Shortleaf PinePinus echinata
7.48Queensland MapleFlindersia brayleyana
7.48Table Mountain PinePinus pungens
7.48LebbeckAlbizia lebbeck
7.47Port Orford CedarChamaecyparis lawsoniana
7.42Eastern HemlockTsuga canadensis
7.39CoffeetreeGymnocladus dioicus
7.38Bigleaf mapleAcer macrophyllum
7.38DegluptaEucalyptus deglupta
7.36Yellow silverballiAniba hypoglauca
7.36Northern Silky OakCardwellia sublimis
7.36CypressTaxodium distichum
7.34JarrahEucalyptus marginata
7.34RedwoodSequoia sempervirens
7.34Mexican alderAlnus jorullensis
7.33Jack PinePinus banksiana
7.33Spruce PinePinus glabra
7.32Longleaf PinePinus palustris
7.31TimboranaPseudopiptadenia suaveolens
7.31Atlantic White CedarChamaecyparis thyoides
7.31White PoplarPopulus alba
7.30New Zealand kauriAgathis australis
7.30Dark Red MerantiShorea spp.
7.29Common LimeTilia x europaea
7.29KeruingDipterocarpus spp.
7.29Ponderosa PinePinus ponderosa
7.27Alder-leaf BirchBetula alnoides
7.26AromataClathrotropis macrocarpa
7.25AraracangaAspidosperma megalocarpon
7.25Rose sheoakAllocasuarina torulosa
7.25White WillowSalix alba
7.24Lignum VitaeGuaiacum officinale
7.22Hoop PineAraucaria cunninghamii
7.22BalauShorea spp.
7.20AngeliqueDicorynia guianensis
7.20East Indian KauriAgathis dammara
7.18NyatohPalaquium spp. Payena spp.
7.18Blue GumEucalyptus globulus
7.18EspaveAnacardium excelsum
7.18CheesewoodAlstonia congensis
7.17Spotted GumCorymbia maculata
7.16Alaska Paper BirchBetula neoalaskana
7.15Burmese BlackwoodDalbergia cultrata
7.15MarblewoodZygia racemosa
7.15Loblolly PinePinus taeda
7.13White SerayaParashorea spp.
7.12Quaking AspenPopulus tremuloides
7.10Red alderAlnus rubra
7.10Khasi PinePinus kesiya
7.08QuipoCavanillesia platanifolia
7.08Douglas-FirPseudotsuga menziesii
7.07TamarackLarix larcina
7.07Goncalo AlvesAstronium graveolens
7.05Siam balsaAlstonia spatulata
7.05Red ashAlphitonia excelsa
7.04SycamorePlatanus occidentalis
7.04GuanacasteEnterolobium cyclocarpum
7.03Raspberry jamAcacia acuminata
7.03BulokeAllocasuarina luehmannii
7.02PartridgewoodAndira inermis
7.01Lodgepole PinePinus contorta
7.00DoiAlphitonia zizyphoides
6.99California red firAbies magnifica
6.99American ChestnutCastanea dentata
6.99Australian blackwoodAcacia melanoxylon
6.98Heavy hopeaHopea iriana
6.98YarranAcacia homalophylla
6.97YellowheartEuxylophora paraensis
6.96CamphorCinnamomum camphora
6.95Western LarchLarix occidentalis
6.94CandlenutAleurites moluccanus
6.94Eastern White PinePinus strobus
6.93Western HemlockTsuga heterophylla
6.89Mountain AshEucalyptus regnans
6.89Sugar PinePinus lambertiana
6.86ButternutJuglans cinerea
6.84Red MangroveRhizophora mangle
6.84Pinyon PinePinus edulis
6.84RengasGluta spp.
6.81Tree of HeavenAilanthus altissima
6.81Norfolk Island PineAraucaria heterophylla
6.79Light Red MerantiShorea contorta
6.77BataiFalcataria moluccana
6.76CucumbertreeMagnolia acuminata
6.76Western Red CedarThuja plicata
6.75Red PinePinus resinosa
6.74TzalamLysiloma latisiliquum
6.71BoonareeAlectryon oleifolius
6.71Rock sheoakAllocasuarina huegeliana
6.71BeefwoodGrevillea striata
6.70SalmwoodCordia alliodora
6.70Indian Silver GreywoodTerminalia bialata
6.70CerejeiraAmburana cearensis
6.69Black CottonwoodPopulus trichocarpa
6.69Pin CherryPrunus pensylvanica
6.66Noble firAbies procera
6.66Ocote PinePinus oocarpa
6.65SweetbayMagnolia virginiana
6.64Western White PinePinus monticola
6.64Black SprucePicea mariana
6.63Pond PinePinus serotina
6.59Indian pulaiAlstonia scholaris
6.58Engelmann SprucePicea engelmannii
6.57White SprucePicea glauca
6.56JelutongDyera costulata
6.55Andean alderAlnus acuminata
6.53White firAbies concolor
6.52TatajubaBagassa guianensis
6.49Norway SprucePicea abies
6.48Coracao de negroSwartzia panacoco
6.47Sumatran PinePinus merkusii
6.41Yellow buckeyeAesculus flava
6.39Yellow poplarLiriodendron tulipifera
6.36Bigtooth AspenPopulus grandidentata
6.36European AspenPopulus tremula
6.36Subalpine firAbies lasiocarpa
6.35Balsam firAbies balsamea
6.34Sitka SprucePicea sitchensis
6.27Hard milkwoodAlstonia spectabilis
6.27TornilloCedrelinga cateniformis
6.25KarriEucalyptus diversicolor
6.24Broad-leaved appleAngophora subvelutina
6.20Eastern CottonwoodPopulus deltoides
6.18Balsam PoplarPopulus balsamifera
6.18Manil montagneMoronobea coccinea
6.17Nepalese alderAlnus nepalensis
6.14Red SprucePicea rubens
6.14Black IronwoodKrugiodendron ferreum
6.12Fijian kauriAgathis macrophylla
6.09Pacific silver firAbies amabilis
6.05Pink ashAlphitonia petriei
5.99ChechenMetopium brownei
5.96BasswoodTilia americana
5.96Austrian PinePinus nigra
5.90KempasKoompassia malaccensis
5.71Grand firAbies grandis
5.28BalsaOchroma pyramidale
4.76SugiCryptomeria japonica

A Closer Look at MOE and Wood Anatomy

Regardless of one’s feelings about the results of the bow index list above, it is almost universally recognized that modulus of elasticity (MOE) is a very important measurement for wood bows. After all, the very act of bending an archery bow has direct bearing on this measurement. But unlike wood hardness, which has been shown to have a very strong and predictable relation to wood density[2]Wiemann, M. C. (2007). Estimating Janka hardness from specific gravity for tropical and temperate species (Vol. 643). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory., MOE has shown much more of a variation with relation to a wood’s density. In short, there appears to be some woods that are heavy, where you’d expect them to be commensurately stiffer as well, but that’s not always the case. There appears to be at least one other factor in play in determining MOE.

Enter microfibrils.

Microfibrils are tiny strands found within the cell walls of wood. Usually they run parallel with the wood grain, but that’s not always the case, and they can sometimes run at varying degrees off of parallel, which is called the microfibril angle (MFA). (See the notes in red lettering pertaining to the central S2 layer in the reference image below.)

Note this is not to be confused with interlocked or spiral grain found in some wood species, as microfibrils are much smaller—it’s possible to have a wood with straight grain but angled microfibrils.

It appears that the microfibril angle (MFA) is the hidden variable that accounts for (most) of the remaining variation in predicting MOE, since the value is so hard to predict if relying on wood density alone. In studying species of Eucalyptus, it was found that “MFA alone accounted for 87 percent of the variation in MOE, while density alone accounted for 81 percent. Together, MFA and density (as Density/MFA) accounted for 92 percent of the variation in MOE.”[3]Yang, J. L., & Evans, R. (2003). Prediction of MOE of eucalypt wood from microfibril angle and density. Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff, 61(6), 449-452. So an increased off-axis microfibril angle contributes to a decrease in MOE. (Specifically, the microfibril angle in the larger central S2 layer pictured above.[4]Donaldson, L. (2008). Microfibril angle: measurement, variation and relationships–a review. IAWA Journal, 29(4), 345-386.) But perhaps equally important, though easy to overlook, the same study found that “MFA had little independent influence on MOR.”[5]Yang, J. L., & Evans, R. (2003). Prediction of MOE of eucalypt wood from microfibril angle and density. Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff, 61(6), 449-452.

In practical terms, the microfibril angle acts as a special variable that allows otherwise dense and strong woods to have a disproportionately low MOE with no effect on the MOR. An increased density would also mean an increase in both MOE and MOR, which would have little to no effect on a wood’s bow index. But woods with a high MFA could have the peculiar combination of a high MOR and a low MOE, exactly what we’re hunting for.

Are you an aspiring wood nerd?

The poster, Worldwide Woods, Ranked by Hardness, should be required reading for anyone enrolled in the school of wood nerdery. I have amassed over 500 wood species on a single poster, arranged into eight major geographic regions, with each wood sorted and ranked according to its Janka hardness. Each wood has been meticulously documented and photographed, listed with its Janka hardness value (in lbf) and geographic and global hardness rankings. Consider this: the venerable Red Oak (Quercus rubra) sits at only #33 in North America and #278 worldwide for hardness! Aspiring wood nerds be advised: your syllabus may be calling for Worldwide Woods as part of your next assignment!

References

References
1 Bjurhager, I., Gamstedt, E., Keunecke, D., Niemz, P. & Berglund, L. (2013). Mechanical performance of yew (Taxus baccata L.) from a longbow perspective. Holzforschung, 67(7), 763.
2 Wiemann, M. C. (2007). Estimating Janka hardness from specific gravity for tropical and temperate species (Vol. 643). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.
3, 5 Yang, J. L., & Evans, R. (2003). Prediction of MOE of eucalypt wood from microfibril angle and density. Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff, 61(6), 449-452.
4 Donaldson, L. (2008). Microfibril angle: measurement, variation and relationships–a review. IAWA Journal, 29(4), 345-386.
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Steve Hawkins

I live in the highlands of PNG and recently bought a 6 foot long bow from an American expat. It is only about 35 pounds draw weight and I would like to back it with something to bring the weight up to at least 45, preferably 50-55. Any suggestions for a wood I could access here that would work well?

John

Bamboo may be your best bet

Guy Online

As others have mentioned below, you can use the modulus of resilience as a guide for how good a wood will be for making bows. Dividing this quantity by the density of the material gives you the amount of energy the wood can store per unit of mass before breaking. The higher this value, the lighter the limbs will need to be for any given draw weight, which makes for a more efficient bow. The formula to calculate this is E/kg = MOR^2 / 2 / MOE / rho, where rho is the density of the wood. The two is… Read more »

Nathaniel

Was planning on planing down a small branch of ash and some stout boxelder maple before gluing them together. Does that seem like a good combination for composite recurve wings?

Could you possibly use crêpe myrtle or Mamosa?

Could you possibly use crêpe myrtle or Mamosa?

John

The foremost metric of bow performance is speed of cast. The speed of cast of a bow has a hard upper limit at the speed attained by the center-most point of the string during a dry-fire. Obviously, you don’t want to damage the bow, so the arrow should be massive enough in relation to the draw weight of the bow so as to keep the release speed of the arrow much slower than the dry-fire speed. The faster a bow is capable of dry-firing, the faster it can propel an arrow sufficiently massive so as to prevent the limbs from… Read more »

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Tim

Hallo John, I could not quite figure out the formula used here, would it be possible to let me me know how to calculate this for other woods. Thanks

John Barron

Of course Tim. The simplest form of the formula I used for the self-fling speed v in ft/s is: v=68.07*R/sqrt(E*W), Where R is the modulus of rupture in psi, E is modulus of elasticity in psi, and W is average dried weight in lb/ft^3. Note also that the maximum possible tip speed of a limb can be substantially faster than the self-fling speed of the wood from which it is made. The tip speed attained is a function of both the self-fling speed, as well as geometric properties of the limb, such as its cross section shape, its length, and… Read more »

Phillip R Cross

I’m confused. Where does time enter the equation for self-fling? There is no time in any of the components of the formula that I can see.

John Barron

Hi Phillip,

The time dimension is buried in both the modulus of rupture and elastic modulus. Note that each of these has units of pressure, or psi. lbf/in^2. lbf is a unit of force, which is mass times acceleration. And finally, acceleration is ft/s^2. That’s where the time unit comes from.

Phillip R Cross

That’s about what I figured. Thanks much.

Dan

it does not make sens to me that the wood has to BEND EASILY… I would say that it has to be HARD TO BEND and hard to break.if its easy to bend no power will be stored in it. if you put it to the extreme…..if it were so easy to bend that just holding it from one end horizontaly … the other end would drop under its own weight.if its hard to bend then you have to put energy in pulling it thus loading the limbs does that make more sens.

John Barron

Dan, I can see how the effect of varying the resistance to bending might be counterintuitive. At least for non-engineers/physicists. Usually stronger woods tend to also be stiffer in proportion, and being that the modulus of resilience is more sensitive to changes in strength than to changes in stiffness, so we have a case of confounding variables. Say for instance wood species A has half the elastic modulus of wood species B. Given no other information about these materials, there is a greater likelihood that species B will store more energy than species A and perform better as a bow… Read more »

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Last edited 1 year ago by John Barron
Aaron Dougherty

Yeah—like rope is easy to bend, hard to break. I’ve never seen a rope bow.

David Werner

the Inuit make there bows with sinew rope as both string and backing material. As there is very little in the way of good long pieces of material for the purpose of bow making in the arctic circle, they take small sections of very straight grained wood; interestingly enough, Spruce, being some of the poorer quality species mentioned, is one of the primary sources chosen. The sections are spliced together with pieces of antler or bone, using cables of sinew instead of glue, as the arctic temperatures would instantly turn hide or fish bladder glues, used in nomadic step cultures… Read more »

JOHN COLLEY

not one mention of Australian native trees

John

Maybe as there’s no historical aboriginal use of bows?

JOHN COLLEY

I do know that Spotted gum makes a good flar bow, i’ve made one.No, I do not think the Aboriginals were developed enough for bows they were still throwing pointy sticks,200 years ago,

Albert rogers

I am impressed by the response to my test entry “cedar”. I have an excellent Virginia Juniper in my front yard, and I disdain the practice of calling it and the Thuja plicata “red cedars”

Nick B

So, in the event someone wanted to give a metal bow a try, I did a little digging with comments here and elsewhere to look at the viability of Grade V Titanium for bow making after seeing how springy it was in another application. Based on MOR/MOE, titanium is on the correct scale with a value around 8 or 9. Based on MOR/Density (suggested by some comments as more helpful), grade V titanium initially appears to have a .22 compared to .15 for Osage Orange (MPa/(kg/m^3)). Given this math, it seems reasonable to say that this treatment of titanium would… Read more »

Smoke14

Just from playing around in the yard I believe wild shrubs would make a good bow wood so I think i’ll make a full size bow to to see

Joey

Honeysuckle shrub is very interesting for bows and arrows.

royales

yes, better than yew, especially the sapwood. mock orange, sea buckthorn, plum and laburnum also make very good bows

Vincent

What about carambola wood? It s main to be flexible wood and strong

Nick R

Young’s modulus is determined by measuring short deflections under load. It is a constant which reflects a material’s inherent stiffness. Modulus of Rupture is measured at the final breaking point where the wood gives way under load regardless of the amount of bend before the breakage occurs. A bow needs to flex in a dramatic way, so while these two measurements are important, they can’t tell the whole story. A low stiffness wood like pear could be too brittle and woods with higher stiffness to breakage ratios like hickory and black locust could make excellent bows. Since stiffness is a… Read more »

Jill

Bornean ironwood is it good for bowmaking?

Tim

Here is the post with file :) After seeing all the comments about the different ways to calculate the bow wood index I combined the two for a better overview. The difficult part is that even tho the calculations are based on the physical properties of the wood, things like heartwood/sapwood, interlocked grain, great compression strenght or the addition of a rawhide backing could alter these numbers significantly, which would mean that the number as calculated are not a 100% accurate in real life. A great example of this is juniper, the MOR/MOE *1000 gives 10.31 which is not to… Read more »

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Petros

Hei i cant see the file anymore, can you send it to my email? ( I started a new project making a bow from willow tree) so iwould like to see if yoi have data for it :) )

Tim

The image

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Don Schroeder

What is more important than computing an index, for any wood, regardless of the method used, is the fact that within any species of tree the qualities of individual specimens can vary by 25% or more. (US Forest Service Lab) This basically means that the published numbers aren’t relevant to the resulting bow tillered from any billets, stave, or board just because the wood is labeled. Equally significant is that the published values are obtained by testing samples with very significant sectional deviations from the cross sections of tillered limbs regardless of the bow design. (For example: testing a sample… Read more »

Tim

Hi there, After seeing all the comments about the different ways to calculate the bow wood index I combined the two for a better overview. The difficult part is that even tho the calculations are based on the physical properties of the wood, things like heartwood/sapwood, interlocked grain, great compression strenght or the addition of a rawhide backing could alter these numbers significantly, which would mean that the number as calculated are not a 100% accurate in real life. A great example of this is juniper, the MOR/MOE *1000 gives 10.31 which is not to bad, the MOR^2/MOE/dried weight gives… Read more »

James

It is really hard to find good wood with the ability to bend easily without breaking. Thank you for your help.

Flamentic

MOR^2/MOE/dried weight
Higher result = lighter limbs for the same draw weight = faster and more efficient bow

Flamentic

Lower MOE makes shorter and more efficient or more reflexed and powerful bows
The MoR need to be squared because draw weight*length at failure give the maximum amount of energy the wood can absorb and the MoE is the ratio draw weight/draw length
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resilience_(materials_science)

Terry Davis

Thanks for all your hard work and effort that it took you to put this posting up for all of us that live the art of bow making. We are always looking for the best way to build our perfect bow and the data you have supplied is a valuable resource for us again koodoos to you and your hard work on this matter

Paul

Thank you for posting this – It always crosses my mind when looking at potential bow woods! Incidentally, rowan should feature high on the list too; at 11.61 it would be higher than osage and yew… Norway maple is quite high too, and black locust and hophornbeam (reputably good bow woods are very low…) Where I think the difficulty comes from is dealing with the different potential sizes/geometries of limbs. Perhaps the ‘bow index’ is best used for determining how good a wood is at having narrow/deeper limbs? Yew and Osage are the clear examples – their limbs can be… Read more »

Marc

Contrary to what some say a low MOE is in fact desirable in a bow-wood, those that deny this just don’t have a proper understanding of what MOE means. The ratio of MOE to MOR is as good a method as any I have seen of identifying good bow-wood and after more than 20 years of making bow I have seen many. I commend you on your efforts

Michael

Be specific as to what species of hickory. They aren’t all equal.

Jesse Morgan

Did you consider bamboo at all in writing this article?

James Davis

I am reposting my initial comment, because this page still presents its wrong approach to determining the value of bow wood. The page should be taken down because it is harmful to the investigation. : I have been making bows for more than 15 years. My experience and logic say you have the concept diametrically opposed what is desireable for the MOE. You say wood needs to be EASY to bend. Wrong. What is needed is wood that is HARD to bend and hard to break. That allows less wood to do the work. Less wood means less mass to… Read more »

James Davis

As far as the Argentine Osage is concerned, it was probably not known by those making bows during the centuries when wood was the most used bow material. Second, you should be aware that no data exists for DRY Osage orange. Either the Forest Products Laboratories didn’t run tests on dry Osage or the data never got recorded. I’m sure all your data is from the FPL. I have been in contact with them several times and they have no data for dry Osage and no plans to do any testing. If there are numbers for the Argentine Osage, that… Read more »

Thawed Cave Bear

FPS on release is pretty major…Yew and Bamboo both excel unless I’m mistaken. Also fiberglass (which sucks at most other refined details).

Thawed Cave Bear

It’s a grass. Yes. …How on earth does that matter in any way concerning how to back a bow?

bob

i live in norway what is the best wood here?

Thawed Cave Bear

English/Spanish (European) yew, followed extremely closely by the not-almost-extinct…yet ‘Pacific Yew’.
Others would argue osage, and several of the densest tropical woods–say, Ipe or heartwood. Hickory is ‘easy’, but is the most boring, poor-performance wood in the world next to self-backed pacific yew

Thawed Cave Bear

Do you have elm (wich elm’s traditional)? White ash is good, but regular ‘European Ash’ is better/tougher. And there’s white oak. You don’t have Oregon Oak…but the movement of many European beeches (better than west hemisphere) into Norway expands options. …Also the maples. And the oak comin north, also. Junipers, I assume you have a variety–you need a huge amount of wood. Applewood, pear, and also Laburnum. Various types of maples (Norway Maple is good). Welsh oak (if you can get it, decent, and European Holly isn’t bad–please don’t tell me they have English holly sometimes in the land of… Read more »

Thawed Cave Bear

Wych elm.

Chris Traub

Bob, my wife and I visited your incredibly beautiful country two years ago. We were only there for a day and two nights but we did Norway in a Nutshell and saw a lot of the country. I did not see a single yew tree, taxus baccata, but it does occur in Norway. I think that would be your best native wood, but, from what I’ve read, it’s illegal to cut yew in Norway!

Mario Cargol

What about cupressus macrocarpa? It’s got long straight pieces and the MoR/MoE relation is 10.39, looks nice.. I’ve readed that some have made nice bows laminating alaskan yellow cedar wich has a worse MoR/MoE relation.. I think i’ll try and tell what about it ;)

????

Stiffer is better in terms of strength resisting the draw, allowing higher poundage– yet at the same time, too stiff with too little MOR to resist the breakage means the limb would not bend that far before it broke, limiting draw length and reflex design. Finally this does not factor in density at all, where higher mass limbs rob cast, because the moment (physics) is further diverted from arrow to limb. In actuality, there is no good metric to say which wood is the best for all the bow designs in the world out there: – Some bows have shorter… Read more »

Thawed Cave Bear

Elasticity IS still important for short bows–for the arrows as well as the bow. But your point is taken.

-As for the point about more massive limbs….that’s why European Yew will always beat Osage by more than a nose, with faster, better casts and less wasted energy :)

Patrick King

Otzi, the 5000 year old ice man mummy found in Europe had two kinds of wood with him. He had Cornel and Verbinum. The pbs show (Nova) wasn’t clear on which type of wood was used for his bow and arrows and which was used as an axe handle.

Mario Cargol

I’ve seen a recent article wich said the axe’s wood was yew

Danny Campbell

Is black cherry a good bow wood

Thawed Cave Bear

Yes it is, if backed by something else. For much more detail, there’s an entry in ‘The Traditional Bowyer’s Bible’, which you can page through on google books.

Thawed Cave Bear

Yes and no. Can have truly great characteristics, but it’s unreliable. It fails easily and unpredictably. Chrysals for no reason you can think of. But people tell me it’s almost self-backed yew, sometimes. Treat it right (whatever that is…), if you give it a shot? That’s what the kids are saying, anyway.

Charles Elias SR

I have and odd question has anyone tried crepe myrtle as a bow wood

Thawed Cave Bear

I recall the name coming up, so I’m going to say yes, and that…it’s probably supobtimal, but possible to use. Mostly guessing.

Ben

This is an interesting article to get people talking about how mechanical properties relate to bow performance. There are several problems however. 1) the value the author has effectively calculated is (%strain at failure)x10. In other words the change in length of the material at failure(rupture). 2) it ignores the density of the wood. modulus of rupture is a measure of strain at failure. Strain is force/area. So this is only a relevant value for comparing two woods of identical mass since limb mass will determine performance and not limb cross sectional area. 3) it assumes that a wood which… Read more »

nicethugbert

A bow is a spring. How well does MOE describe a spring? An easily bent bow is a weak bow. Rubberbands bend easily. Stronger bows require more strength to bend then weaker bows. So, I doubt a low MOE would describe a good bow.

The MOE would be matched to the strength of the person using the bow to know if it the bow is too stiff for them to draw.

UrbanBowyer

The thing is, a bow with a high MOE and a medium MOR will be strong but will make a bow with a very shallow and wide cross-section which isn’t very aerodynamic. For example although Hickory does make great bows, it relies on its raw strength rather than an efficient transfer of energy. You commonly see hickory short-bows so the ends of the limbs won’t be too far away from the center line to create much drag and the bows tend to not be the highest poundage because the wood is so thin. Hickory is great for backing a bow… Read more »

Doug

The two post prominent Australian bowwoods seem to be Red Ironbark and Spotted Gum. Yet using this method they both rank very low (7.37 and 7.17 respectively).

My understanding has always been that high density, high MoR woods were most likely to make good bowwoods.

Steve

One thing that should be included in the calculation is the density of the wood. A low density would make the limbs of the bow quicker. The equation would be modified be dividing by the density.

Question: what is the source that supports a low modulus? For 2 identical bows, the one with the higher modulus would have a higher stored energy and draw weight at the same length of draw. If the same draw weight is desired, then the limbs could be made thinner and lighter with the higher modulus wood. This would result in quicker bow limbs.

Matt

I wonder if we could get the raw numbers for these? I would imagine you’d want a wood with neither a very high, nor very low Modulus of Elasticity, since a bow too easy to bend ends up with less power, yes?

Drew

I live on the West coast of Australia, and have been trying some local timbers in bow building with little success. Has anyone had any success with Australian timbers for bow building

Doug

Spotted Gum and Red Ironbark are the two premier aussie bowwoods I’ve heard of. For the most part you want high density, high MoR timbers.

Dan Goodwin

Can anyone tell me what is the best glue to laminate a wooden bow?

kj

Tightbond, epoxy, and hide glue all work fine, if applied properly.

Joseph E. Cunanan

I’m chopping down a Blackwood Acacia (Australian Acacia, Black Acacia, Myrtlewood?) Tree, and I’ve got a few projects lining up, one of which is a Recurve or Long Bow and the other is a Cross-Bow/Mini-Cross-Bow or three. My questions are how does this wood add up for use as a Bow. It seems to be up there with the best Hickory in terms of Strength, Rupture, Harness, Elasticity, and Crushing Ratios. But, it doesn’t show up anywhere as a Material for a Bow. Is it because I only checked the Top Ten Search Listings on Google. Or, because the Australians… Read more »

Bowmakerindo

Any kind of acacia will do the job

Lyndon

Not true. Many tribes in Australia used a  spear with woomera, which operated in a similar way to a bow and arrow, in that the woomera launched the spear (a much larger projectile) which increased the speed and accuracy of the throw when done by an experienced practitioner.

Michael David

This is perfect for what I was looking for! I have been looking for good wood to make bo’s and Jo’s from and I wanted something that would flex, but not break. Perfect.

D

Unfortunately, I have to agree for bows. Too low an MOE is not ideal. You need the wood to be able to take all the force without bending too much and then deliver it back into the arrow. If it bends too much you will lose force. But I’m no scientist.

However for my purposes this has been fabulous as this is exactly what I was looking for, thank you. I’m making something (it’s hard to explain) that requires exactly this: migh MOR/ low MOE. Imagine my joy!

Thank you very much.

Rob Wilkey

This is an awesome article, but I have to agree with James Davis. The best recurve bow I’ve ever shot (that was mostly wood) was carved in Hickory.

I think the real value to this article is showing woods that work well in tensioned setups.

A furniture design I’ve been working on required tensioned lengths of wood for the legs and armrests, and this article has helped me narrow down the list of woods available for this purpose.

Thanks!

Thawed Cave Bear

Ugh. Hickory. I’m glad it did something for you, but…it’s the short bus of bow-woods, for me–so often recommended in suboptimal circumstances because “hey, at least you won’t break a hickory bow!” In efficiency, power, subtlety it doesn’t compare to a bow-material that can send arrows down-range through compression, like a rebounding string. It’s just cheap, robust, carries tension and is stable–and is easily covered in fiberglass. Would you like to buy a still-wonderfully functional Hickory longbow?

Thawed Cave Bear

(Cough) -Just a personal feeling about it–I meant no offense.

jonathan

This is an interesting article. I agree with Eric regarding the ratio of MOR to MOE. Hickory is known to have an excellent MOR but it also has a very high MOE. That I believe explains its inferiority to osage or yew. Black locust has a slightly lower MOE than hickory but a similar MOR- again explaining its superiority. I have made bows from osage, muninga and chinaberry and of none of them took much set (plastic deformation). The only problem with just using this ratio is that it doesn’t take into account the fact that you still need the… Read more »

Steve

A true MOR is measuring the bending strength of the wood, so crush would be included in the value. There is a good article at ask dot com. That is unless you are asking about transverse crush (cross grain). That value is typically directly related to wood density. Balsa would be immediately discounted because the light grades would crush in the archer’s hand.

Thawed Cave Bear

What a useless response, devoted to demonstrating alleged technical knowledge that’s not useful without context!

Alex Wirtz

A very qualified yes to this: if you’re building laminate bows – not selfbows – you get a different result for the back wood (the part of the bow facing away from the archer, requiring strong tensile strength) and for the belly (where compression strength is most important). One of the reasons yew has the primacy it does in European bowmaking is that it is, in effect, a laminate itself – the sapwood and heartwood have quite different qualities. Hickory is inferior to practically nothing as a back wood (not sure how a hickory-only selfbow would work, though I’ve seen… Read more »

Eric Hauck

Eric,
Thank you for your efforts and work in providing these correlations of tests and data. For those of us who battle the obsession of bow-making all additional information and studies are always welcome.
Best Regards,
Eric

P.S. Your disclaimer “…to foster imagination and exploration” is appreciated but probably not necessary :)).

James Davis

I have been making bows for more than 15 years. My experience and logic say you have the concept diametrically opposed what is desireable for the MOE. What is needed is wood that is HARD to bend and hard to break. That allows less wood to do the work. Less wood means less mass to be put in motion by the energy stored in the bent bow, resulting in faster arrow flight. Black locust the hickories, white ash and others balance the force required to bend them quite well with the force required to break them. Perhaps a formula recognizing… Read more »

LEM

It seems to me that the best bow material for bow making is bamboo. I don’t know the MOE or MOR of the wood but it will flex and return to it’s original shape better than the ones I have made from hickory, hard maple and Pacific Yew. Granted, the grain of these species is sometimes erratic. Tonkin Bamboo is a good species partly because it can be gotten in larger diameters 3″ to 4″ or so and split to 2″ strips, flattened, and planed to thicknesses for laminating. Bamboo in general is straight grained wwhich is part of the… Read more »

rockyrgs

What poundage are the so. eastern bamboo self bows? do they shoot arrows or bamboo darts like their crossbows? Although their bows on the crossbows are 4′ Mountain Yard mahogany.
BTW HOWARD HILL never shot bows less than 110 lbs draw weight. the movie with Errol Flynn he used that 110lb draw weight bow and the guys that he shot in the chest had 1″ wood boards backed with 1/4″steel and they hated to get hit with those arrows! they were really knocked off their horses! H.H. loved the bamboo bows.

jim

you would have to change never to most of the time. i still have the pictures of howard hill shooting my fathers recurve bow. my fathers name was frank murphy and he was a skilled bowyer out of new york.
locally his diamond bow company was a favorite among many new york target shooters and hunters. the chance meeting of HH at a field archery event was one of his favorite memories.

Thawed Cave Bear

Not even during the Great Leap Forward? (42 million dead for no important reason)? The continued Cultural Revolution?
–I guess all the hundreds of millions of historical slave-owners must have been right, too! It’s too many to be wrong.
-Bamboo may be ‘straight grained’ but it simply doesn’t last as long as its partners in crime–great tensile strength, but it needs replacing before a battle’s over.
-It’s unlikely Howard Hill shot the bow-hunting sequences in Errol Flynn’s (thematically rich AND historically accurate) masterpiece. More likely, I’d expect he was, say, stunt choreographer, or an AD.

Bug eater 357

Hundreds of millions of slave owners?