Basswood (Tilia americana)
Basswood (Tilia americana)

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Common Name(s): Basswood, American Basswood, Lime, Linden

Scientific Name: Tilia americana

Distribution: Eastern North America

Tree Size: 65-120 ft (20-37 m) tall, 3-4 ft (1-1.2 m) trunk diameter

Average Dried Weight: 26 lbs/ft3 (415 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .32, .42

Janka Hardness: 410 lbf (1,820 N)

Modulus of Rupture: 8,700 lbf/in2 (60.0 MPa)

Elastic Modulus: 1,460,000 lbf/in2 (10.07 GPa)

Crushing Strength: 4,730 lbf/in2 (32.6 MPa)

Shrinkage: Radial: 6.6%, Tangential: 9.3%, Volumetric: 15.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.4

Color/Appearance: Pale white to light brown color, with sapwood and heartwood sections not clearly defined. Growth rings tend to be subtle, and color is mostly uniform throughout the face grain of the wood. Knots and other defects are uncommon.

Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a fine, even texture and moderate natural luster.

Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; medium pores predominantly in radial multiples or clusters of 2-4; growth rings indistinct or distinct due to marginal parenchyma; medium to large rays, normal spacing, noded; parenchyma banded (marginal), apotracheal parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates.

Rot Resistance: Basswood is rated as being non-durable in regard to heartwood decay.

Workability: Easy to work, being very soft and light. Perhaps one of the most suitable wood species for hand carving. Basswood also glues and finishes well, but has poor steam bending and nail holding characteristics.

Odor: No characteristic odor.

Allergies/Toxicity: Besides the standard health risks associated with any type of wood dust, no further health reactions have been associated with Basswood. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.

Pricing/Availability: Widely available as lumber or carving blanks. Prices are in the lower range for a domestic hardwood, though larger carving blocks are more expensive.

Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Common Uses: Carvings, lumber, musical instruments (electric guitar bodies), veneer, plywood, and wood pulp and fiber products.

Comments: Species in the Tilia genus are usually referred to as either Lime or Linden in Europe, while  in North America it’s most commonly called Basswood.

Basswood is an ideal wood for  many woodcarvers. Its soft, fine, even texture make it easy to work with, while its pale, inconspicuous color doesn’t detract from the carved patterns of the finished product (which also makes it easier to paint and color).

Though Basswood has high initial shrinkage, the wood is stable in service after it has been dried. And though the wood is both lightweight and soft, it has an outstanding MOE-to-weight ratio. However, its MOR is on par with its low weight; simply put, when put under stress, the wood will remain stiff, but will still break (rupture) at a relatively average weight.

Related Species:

Scans/Pictures:

Basswood (Tilia americana)
Basswood (sanded)

Basswood (sealed)
Basswood (sealed)

Basswood (endgrain)
Basswood (endgrain)

Basswood (endgrain 10x)
Basswood (endgrain 10x)

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Kevin WrightCarlos MolinaRoger BussBarbaraEric Recent comment authors
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Kevin Wright
Kevin Wright

Never knew what basswood was and was curious to find out as some guitars seem to be made of it. Reading this I can see why, it has a lot of the right properties.

Barbara
Barbara

……most northern European towns that have an Allee, mostly planted with Linden Trees,and often ended up being called “Linden Allee”, most handsome straight trunks and a well balanced round crown that turns into a beautiful yellow ball in autumn. We, as children grumbled a bit because we had to sweep up the jolly leafs and they went straight into the cement compost pit at the rear of the garden.Hardy trees that frame very many streets and needless to say, great for climbing. If room permitted, they were also a favourite for rear gardens, planted in a U shape and facing… Read more »

Tom Wistrand
Tom Wistrand

I know the maple, cherry and walnut are preferred species for cutting boards. Any opinion on using basswood for cutting boards?

Teresa Case
Teresa Case

Does anyone know if Basswood grows in the Upstate of South Carolina? We live about 20 miles from the North Carolina border. I am starting wood carving and as a beginner I unfortunately go through a lot of wood. The wood it self is not to expensive, but the shipping is what makes getting a large quantity very hard. Thanks for any help or ideas.

Teresa

Richard Stimler

Although basswood is also known as linden or lime in Europe, it is commonly planted in towns and cities throughout the US as an ornamental. You see Linden Boulevard or Linden Street, etc. all over the country, with basswood trees often lining the sidewalks. If you’re a woodcarver and have never used this wood, you’re in for a real treat. It’s like it was designed to be carved. Go to google images and look at the carvings of Grinling Gibbons.

Ed Davidson

I like Basswood for turning…inexpensive and easy to find. Turns easy but takes some effort to get a good sanded finish. This 4″ x 6″ Basswood box was made for a toy throw-top storage and display.

Roger Buss
Roger Buss

Question: does Basswood make good (or even CLOSE to good) Tomahawk/axe handles?

Carlos Molina
Carlos Molina

Hello, Roger.
Since it is a soft wood, it isn’t suitable for a “tool” handle.
Look for harder woods if you don’t want to replace those handles frequently.
Cheers!

Carlos Molina
Carlos Molina

Try to select other woods using the Janka Hardness scale as a reference.
Cheers!

Annette
Annette

Ima kid trying to research this and what eats basswood and what does it need to survive Please!

Dylan talaga
Dylan talaga

Is basswood 100% natural?

Rudy Speerschneider
Rudy Speerschneider

Hi! I have no idea what species wood this is (see attachment photo)..I browed your data base but didn’t find anything that matched it (esp. the exterior / bark ).
Please let me know what you think!
Thanks,
Rudy

M
M

Looks like American beech. Some of the light colored leaves on the ground match. You may be able to find some of the old seed pods on the ground as well.

Mike
Mike

Hi!

I found some Basswood I had stashed in my closet in 2011. Yippee!

How does one re-hydrate wood?

Many thanks,
Mike

Jeff Polaski
Jeff Polaski

Wet it. Put it in a plastic Ziplock bag. Leave it for days or weeks, depending on size. If it’s too damp to carve, let it dry some.

Brandon J Mayfield
Brandon J Mayfield

Is basswood hard wood or soft

Millicent
Millicent

It’s considered a hardwood. Which is weird because it’s said to be very soft.

GCH
GCH

Hardwoods and softwoods don’t refer to the harness of the wood, but how they reproduce. Hardwoods are angiosperms which means that they have a seed with some kind of shell covering (hard). Softwoods are gymnosperms, which has soft seed (most often conifers). Some softwoods (like yellow pine) are quite hard, and some hardwoods (like balsa) are quite soft.

Almantas Kliucius
Almantas Kliucius

Nice Book for Foresters and not only.