Common Name(s): Leopardwood
Scientific Name: Roupala montana (syn. R. brasiliense)
Distribution: Central and South America
Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1.0 m) trunk diameter
Average Dried Weight: 55 lbs/ft3 (885 kg/m3)
Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .73, .89
Janka Hardness: 2,150 lbf (9,560 N)
Modulus of Rupture: No data available
Elastic Modulus: 2,887,000 lbf/in2 (19.91 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 7,280 lbf/in2 (50.2 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 3.5%, Tangential: 8.8%, Volumetric: 11.5%, T/R Ratio: 2.5
Color/Appearance: Has a very conspicuous flecking that gives this wood its namesake. The wood itself is a medium to dark reddish brown with grey or light brown rays, which resemble the spots of a leopard. Like other woods that exhibit the strongest figure in quartersawn pieces, (such as Sycamore), Leopardwood has the most pronounced figure and displays the largest flecks when perfectly quartersawn; this is due to the wood’s wide medullary rays, whose layout can be seen the clearest when looking at the endgrain.
Grain/Texture: Has a fairly coarse texture and straight grain.
Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; small to medium pores in tangential rows; solitary and tangential multiples of 2-3; deposits in heartwood occasionally present; growth rings indistinct; very wide rays easily visible without lens; parenchyma banded, diffuse-in-aggregates.
Rot Resistance: Most species are reported to be very durable regarding decay resistance.
Workability: Fairly difficult to work because of its high density and tendency to tearout during planing. Leopardwood glues and finishes well.
Odor: No characteristic odor.
Allergies/Toxicity: Although there have been no adverse health effects reported for Lacewood in the Roupala genus, several other genera in the Proteaceae family have been reported to cause eye and skin irritation. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.
Pricing/Availability: Prices for Leopardwood tend to be medium to high for an imported wood.
Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Common Uses: Veneer, cabinetry, fine furniture, musical instruments (guitars), and turned objects.
Comments: Leopardwood is frequently confused with Lacewood, and is sometimes referred to as such. In its vaguest sense, the term “lacewood” is used to describe any wood that displays figuring that resembles lace, (which would technically include Leopardwood). Attempts to identify a specific board macroscopically may be difficult. Two Australian species, Northern Silky Oak (Cardwellia sublimis), and Southern Silky Oak (Grevillea robusta) can both look very similar, and are sometimes sold as Australian Lacewood.
Leopardwood (Roupala spp.) can usually be separated from most species of Lacewood (Panopsis spp.) based upon its darker color and higher density. Additionally, when comparing the endgrain of these two genera, Leopardwood has wider spaced parenchyma bands: approximately 3-4 per mm versus 5-6 per mm with Lacewood.
Scans/Pictures: Note the pair of pictures demonstrating the use of a bandsaw in resawing a small piece of Leopardwood to fully display the ray flecks in the wood.