Common Name(s): English Elm, Carpathian Elm
Scientific Name: Ulmus procera
Distribution: Western Europe
Tree Size: 80-115 ft (25-35 m) tall, 3-6 ft (1-2 m) trunk diameter
Average Dried Weight: 35 lbs/ft3 (565 kg/m3)
Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .49, .57
Janka Hardness: 810 lbf (3,620 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 9,430 lbf/in2 (65.0 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,032,000 lbf/in2 (7.12 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 4,740 lbf/in2 (32.7 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 5.0%, Tangential: 7.0%,
Grain/Texture: Grain is interlocked (making it very resistant to splitting). With a somewhat coarse, uneven texture.
Rot Resistance: Rated as non-durable; susceptible to insect attack. Living trees are susceptible to Dutch elm disease.
Workability: Can be a challenge to work because of interlocked grain, especially on quartersawn surfaces. Planing can cause tearout and/or fuzzy surfaces. Poor dimensional stability. Glues, stains, and finishes well. Responds well to steam bending, and holds nails and screws well.
Odor: Elm usually has a strong, unpleasant smell when green; though once dried has very little odor.
Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Elm in the Ulmus genus has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.
Pricing/Availability: Should be moderately priced within its natural habitat in Europe, though availability from mature trees has been greatly diminished by Dutch elm disease. Carpathian Elm burl veneer is occasionally available, and is among the most expensive veneers commercially available.
Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Common Uses: Boxes, baskets, furniture, hockey sticks, veneer, archery bows, and paper (pulpwood).
Comments: Elm trees are commonly infected with Dutch elm disease, a fungal disease spread by elm bark beetles. D.E.D. has wiped out millions of Elm trees worldwide.
- American Elm (Ulmus americana)
- Carpathian Elm (Ulmus procera)
- Cedar Elm (Ulmus crassifolia)
- Dutch Elm (Ulmus x hollandica)
- Red Elm (Ulmus rubra)
- Rock Elm (Ulmus thomasii)
- Winged Elm (Ulmus alata)
- Wych Elm (Ulmus glabra)
Scans/Pictures: A special thanks to Steve Earis for providing the wood sample and turned photo of this wood species.