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Sweet Cherry

Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium) Common Name(s): Sweet Cherry, Wild Cherry, European CherryScientific Name: Prunus avium Distribution: Europe and Asia Tree Size: 32-65 ft (10-20 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 39 lbs/ft3 (600 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .48, .60 Janka Hardness: 1,150 lbf (5,120 N) Modulus of Rupture: 14,980 lbf/in2 (103.3 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,529,000 lbf/in2 (10.55 GPa) Crushing Strength: 7,250 lbf/in2 (50.0 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 5.1%, Tangential: 8.4%, Volumetric: 13.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.6 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light pinkish brown when freshly cut, darkening to a deeper golden brown with time and upon exposure to light. Sapwood is a pale yellowish color, typically 1-2" wide. Grain/Texture: Has a fine to medium texture with close grain. The grain is usually straight or slightly wavy. Endgrain: Semi-ring-porous; small pores in no specific arrangement; solitary and radial multiples of 2-3; gum/deposits occasionally present; growth rings distinct due to a concentration of earlywood pores; rays visible without lens; parenchyma absent. Rot Resistance: Heartwood is rated as being moderately durable to non-durable regarding decay resistance. Sweet Cherry is also susceptible to insect attack. Workability: Sweet Cherry is easy to work with both machine and hand tools. The only [...]

Apricot

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) Common Name(s): Apricot Scientific Name: Prunus armeniaca Distribution: Native to eastern Europe and Asia; planted worldwide Tree Size: 20-40 ft (6-12 m) tall, 1-1.5 ft (.3-.4 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 46 lbs/ft3 (745 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .58, .74 Janka Hardness: 1,390 lbf (6,200 N)* *Estimated hardness based on specific gravity Modulus of Rupture: No data available Elastic Modulus: No data available Crushing Strength: No data available Shrinkage: No data available Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light brown, sometimes with a reddish or orangish cast. Darker brown streaks are common. Sapwood is generally thin, and  is slightly paler than heartwood. Grain/Texture: Fine even texture with moderate natural luster. Endgrain: Semi-ring-porous; solitary and radial multiples; medium to small pores sometimes arranged in broken earlywood rows, very numerous; mineral/gum deposits occasionally present; parenchyma not visible; medium to large rays, spacing normal. Rot Resistance: No data available. Workability: Areas with straight and clear grain are easy to work with hand or machine tools. Care must be taken when surfacing irregular grain or knots to avoid tearout. Apricot glues, turns, and finishes well. Odor: No characteristic odor. Allergies/Toxicity: Besides the standard health risks associated with any type of wood dust, no further health reactions have been associated with Apricot. See [...]

Plum

Plum (Prunus domestica) Common Name(s): Plum Scientific Name: Prunus domestica Distribution: Widely cultivated in temperate areas worldwide Tree Size: 20-40 ft (6-12 m) tall, 1-1.5 ft (.3-.4 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 50 lbs/ft3 (795 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .61, .79 Janka Hardness: 1,550 lbf (6,900 N)* *Estimated hardness based on specific gravity Modulus of Rupture: 12,810 lbf/in2 (88.4 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,478,000 lbf/in2 (10.19 GPa) Crushing Strength: No data available Shrinkage: No data available Color/Appearance: Plum heartwood can exhibit a cornucopia of colors, typically a yellowish brown, with streaks of pink, orange, red, purple, olive, or gray mixed in. Because of the small size of plum trees, swirled or irregular grain, as well as knots and other defects are common. Grain/Texture: Has a fine texture with close grain and a slight natural luster. Endgrain: Semi-ring-porous to diffuse-porous; small pores, sometimes arranged diagonally, numerous to very numerous; solitary and radial multiples of 2-3; mineral/gum deposits occasionally present, though not easily seen with lens; growth rings usually distinct due to a concentration of earlywood pores; parenchyma marginal; medium to wide rays, spacing normal. Rot Resistance: No data available. Workability: Areas with straight and clear grain are easy to work with hand [...]

Black Cherry

Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) Common Name(s): Black Cherry, Cherry, American Cherry Scientific Name: Prunus serotina Distribution: Eastern North America Tree Size: 50-100 ft (15-30 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 35 lbs/ft3 (560 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .47, .56 Janka Hardness: 950 lbf (4,230 N) Modulus of Rupture: 12,300 lbf/in2 (84.8 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,490,000 lbf/in2 (10.30 GPa) Crushing Strength: 7,110 lbf/in2 (49.0 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 3.7%, Tangential: 7.1%, Volumetric: 11.5%, T/R Ratio: 1.9 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light pinkish brown when freshly cut, darkening to a medium reddish brown with time and upon exposure to light. Sapwood is a pale yellowish color. Grain/Texture: The grain is usually straight and easy to work—with the exception of figured pieces with curly grain patterns. Has a fine, even texture with moderate natural luster. Endgrain: Semi-ring-porous to diffuse-porous; small to medium pores in no specific arrangement, numerous; solitary and radial multiples of 2-3; mineral/gum deposits occasionally present, though not easily visible with lens; growth rings usually distinct due to a concentration of earlywood pores; medium to wide rays visible without lens; parenchyma absent. Rot Resistance: Heartwood is rated as being very durable and resistant to decay. Workability: Cherry [...]

Worldwide Woods, a new poster

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KjAfSffIQdA Temporarily unavailable! Please use the email signup list below to be notified as soon as the poster becomes available for sale. Over 500 worldwide woods pictured 24" wide (61 cm) x 36" tall (91 cm) Divided into 8 geographical regions $30 (shipped by Amazon.com) Alder, Red (Alnus rubra) Ash, Black (Fraxinus nigra) Ash, Green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) Ash, White (Fraxinus americana) Aspen, Bigtooth (Populus grandidentata) Aspen, Quaking (Populus tremuloides) Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) Basswood (Tilia americana) Beech, American (Fagus grandifolia) Birch, Paper (Betula papyrifera) Birch, Yellow (Betula alleghaniensis) Box Elder (Acer negundo) Buckeye, Yellow (Aesculus flava) Buckthorn, Cascara (Rhamnus purshiana) Butternut (Juglans cinerea) Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa) Cedar, Atlantic White (Chamaecyparis thyoides) Cedar, Eastern Red (Juniperus virginiana) Cedar, Incense (Calocedrus decurrens) Cedar, Northern White (Thuja occidentalis) Cedar, Port Orford (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) Cedar, Western Red (Thuja plicata) Cedar, Yellow (Cupressus nootkatensis) Cherry, Black (Prunus serotina) Chestnut, American (Castanea dentata) Chinkapin (Chrysolepis chrysophylla) Coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus) [...]

Wood Trading

by Eric Meier (IWCS #9701)Are you interested in getting or using new and unusual wood species? Are you a wood collector? If so, maybe we can trade. If you are a member of the International Wood Collectors Society (IWCS), then you probably already know that the standard size for wood samples is 6" (long) x 3" (wide) x 1/2" (thick). What I've got for tradePlease note that this is not a for-sale list—I'm only looking to extend my diversity of wood species and therefore multiply the reach of the site. For purchasing wood samples, I'd direct you to other sources such as Gary Green, Carlton McLendon Inc, or the man who quite literally wrote the book on wood collecting, Alan Curtis. # Common Name Scientific Name Notes 001Pacific silver firAbies amabilisknot002Pacific silver firAbies amabilisapproximately 2.4" wide006Box elderAcer negundodefects007Red mapleAcer rubrumslight defects008Hard mapleAcer saccharum009Mountain mapleAcer spicatumglued up (two piece), defects010Ambrosia mapleAcer sp.011Ambrosia mapleAcer sp.streaked, but without bug holes012Yellow buckeyeAesculus flava (= A. octandra)191ChamfutaAfzelia quanzensis013KauriAgathis australisswamp-recovered Kauri015LebbeckAlbizia lebbeck158LebbeckAlbizia lebbeck2 7/8" wide016Black sirisAlbizia odoratissima017BoonareeAlectryon oleifoliusglued up (two piece), 7/16" thick, 5 3/4" long018BoonareeAlectryon oleifoliusmostly sapwood019BulokeAllocasuarina luehmanniiminor defects020BulokeAllocasuarina luehmanniidefects021BulokeAllocasuarina luehmannii022Red alderAlnus rubraknot one side259Emien Alstonia congensis2 7/8" [...]

WOOD! book: Identifying and Using Hundreds of Woods Worldwide

AN AMAZON BEST-SELLER   BE BACK IN A JIFFY... The book is temporarily out of stock! I've got more books on the way, but sometimes trucks can be slow... So use the form below to be notified just as soon as the book is back in stock. (5/31/2019) EMAIL ADDRESS 272 Pages 8.5" x 11" page size (22 cm x 28 cm). Full color throughout; Hundreds of images. Hardcover With a sewn binding and jacket-less design to stand up to the rigors of nearly any wood shop. $35 Price Robust, trusted ordering through Amazon. Free domestic shipping; reasonable int’l rates.* Over 350 woods covered Over 100 full-page wood profiles Over 100 half-page wood profiles Data on over 150 related species * Shipping currently not available to Canada or Australia. WOOD SPECIES COVERED IN THE BOOK Full-page profile [...]

Common US Hardwoods

by Eric Meier In the process of identifying wood, things can get a bit overwhelming when faced with the hundreds and hundreds of possible species. Yet in the context of everyday woods that most people in the United States or Canada are likely to encounter, the list of possible woods is usually much shorter. This article is meant to act as sort of a "Cliffs Notes" to help address the most common (and hopefully, obvious) questions of wood identification. Red Oak (Quercus rubra) 1. Oak Comments: This wood is everywhere! Chances are, there's something made of this wood within a stone's throw of where you're sitting right now. It's used for cabinets, furniture, flooring, trim, doors, and just about anything else that can be made of wood! It's very frequently stained a medium reddish brown, so it may look slightly darker than the raw sample pictured to the left. Lookalikes: Ash (lacks the prominent rays that are found in oak). Also, see the article on Distinguishing Red Oak from White Oak. Hard Maple (Acer saccharum) 2. Maple Comments: This light-colored wood is seen almost as frequently as oak, and is usually not stained a dark color, but is kept a natural [...]

Restricted and Endangered Wood Species

by Eric Meier The issue and ethics surrounding the utilization of trees for lumber is oftentimes both expansive and ambiguous. Not only are there questions of sustainability (i.e., given the current rate of harvesting, can a particular species continue to reproduce at a sustainable rate so that demand will not outstrip supply?), but there's also the matter of habitat destruction (i.e., even if a tree species can be sustainably harvested from the wild, would doing so destroy or endanger other species in the same habitat?). Further mixed into this murky cocktail is the fact that for some countries—especially poorer third-world countries—lumber is big business, and placing a restriction on such a lucrative sector of their commerce would be seen as counter-productive, and consequently actual or potential levels of exploitation may not be easily or readily discovered. However, despite the complexity of the issue, and the incomplete or even possibly faulty data, some information is better than no information. With these shortcomings in mind, there are two international entities that will be used and cited on this website, CITES and the IUCN. CITES An international agreement between governments was formed in 1973, called the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species, or CITES for short. CITES has [...]

Jatoba

Jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril) Common Name(s): Jatoba, Brazilian Cherry Scientific Name: Hymenaea courbaril Distribution: Central America, southern Mexico, northern South America, and the West Indies Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 57 lbs/ft3 (910 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .77, .91 Janka Hardness: 2,690 lbf (11,950 N) Modulus of Rupture: 22,510 lbf/in2 (155.2 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 2,745,000 lbf/in2 (18.93 GPa) Crushing Strength: 11,780 lbf/in2 (81.2 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 4.2%, Tangential: 8.0%, Volumetric: 12.1%, T/R Ratio: 1.9 Color/Appearance: Heartwood varies from a light orangish brown to a darker reddish brown, sometimes with contrasting darker grayish brown streaks. Color tends darken upon exposure to light. Sapwood is a light grayish yellow, clearly demarcated from the heartwood. Grain/Texture: Grain is typically interlocked, with a medium to coarse texture. Good natural luster. Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; large pores, very few; solitary and radial multiples of 2-3; mineral deposits (dark brown) occasionally present; parenchyma vasicentric, aliform (lozenge or winged), confluent, and marginal; narrow to medium rays, normal spacing. Rot Resistance: Jatoba is rated as being very durable in regards to rot resistance, and is also resistant to termites and most other insects. (Though it has been reported to [...]

Tiete Rosewood

Tiete Rosewood (Guibourtia hymenaeifolia) Common Name(s): Tiete Rosewood, Patagonian Cherry, Sirari Scientific Name: Guibourtia hymenaeifolia (syn. G. chodatiana) Distribution: South America Tree Size: 130-165 ft (40-50 m) tall,3-6 ft (1-2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 59 lbs/ft3 (945 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .76, .94 Janka Hardness: 2,790 lbf (12,410 N) Modulus of Rupture: 15,830 lbf/in2 (109.2 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 2,030,000 lbf/in2 (14.00 GPa) Crushing Strength: No data available Shrinkage: Radial: 4.0%, Tangential: 7.0%, Volumetric: 9.7%, T/R Ratio: 1.8 Color/Appearance: Generally an orange to pinkish brown. Color tends to darken and redden with age. Grain is typically straight with bland patterning, exhibiting a very uniform color and appearance. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a medium to fine uniform texture. Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; solitary and radial multiples; large pores in no specific arrangement, few; reddish and yellowish heartwood gum deposits occasionally present; parenchyma lozenge, winged, confluent, and banded; narrow rays, spacing normal. Rot Resistance: No specific data is available on the decay resistance of Tiete Rosewood, but tests have shown that untreated wood used in exterior applications has a tendency to warp and check. Workability: Tiete Rosewood is hard and dense, making it more difficult to work than lighter woods, but its straight [...]

Wood Allergies and Toxicity

by Eric Meier "Not to omit any one of them, the yew is similar to these other trees in general appearance . . . It is an ascertained fact that travellers' vessels, made in Gaul of this wood, for the purpose of holding wine, have caused the death of those who used them." –Pliny the Elder, from Naturalis Historia, ca. 77 AD Looking at the above quotation, (taken from a writing nearly two thousand years old), ought to bring—at the very least—a small bit of respect and attention to the matter of safety as it pertains to wood toxicity. If this subject has been known and reported as "ascertained fact" since ancient history, how much more ought we to take heed in modern times, considering that we have so many more well-developed means of communication and testing? Wood Toxicity and Allergen Chart Below you'll find a chart of various wood species, along with their reported effects and properties. The information on this chart has been compiled from many sources, with references given at the bottom. When viewing the chart, please keep the follow in mind: Just because any given wood is not listed on the chart, does not mean that [...]

What is Wood?

by Eric Meier Hardwoods and Softwoods Tree Growth Sapwood and Heartwood Surfaces of Wood Grain Appearance Rays It’s common knowledge that wood comes from trees. What may not be so apparent is the structure of the wood itself, and the individual components that make up any given piece of lumber. Unlike a mostly homogenous piece of foamboard, MDF, or other man-made material, wood is an organic material, and has many distinct characteristics which will be helpful to learn. Hardwoods and Softwoods An immediate and broad distinction that can be made between types of trees (and wood) is the label of hardwood or softwood. This is somewhat of a misnomer, as the label is actually just a separation between angiosperms (flowering plants such as maple, oak, or rosewood), and conifers (cone-bearing trees such as pine, spruce, or fir). Hardwoods (angiosperms) have broad-leaved foliage, and tend to be deciduous—that is, they lose their leaves in the autumn. (However, many tropical hardwood species exist which are evergreen—they maintain their leaves year-round.) Additionally, hardwood trees tend to have a branched or divided trunk, referred to as a dendritic form. This White Oak tree—with a branching form, and leaves that drop in the autumn—is [...]

Acacia (wattle) genus

> Hardwoods > Fabaceae > Acacia Example species (Acacia melanoxylon) Common Name(s): Acacia, wattle Distribution: Primarily Australia; a few species are found in Asia and the Pacific islands Genus Size: Nearly 1,000 species (see available species listing) Mechanical Characteristics: Density greatly variable, some species can be very heavy and hard, though most commercial species are of moderate weight. Visual Characteristics: Many species have a medium to dark brown heartwood with sharply demarcated sapwood. Figured grain patterns such as curl (commonly called "ringed" in Australia) are also seen. Identification: Wood is diffuse porous (not ring-porous), typically with medium to large pores. Parenchyma tends to be primarily vasicentric and isn't generally seen with extensive and wide bands. Many species of Acacia will fluoresce under a black light, which can help to separate them from other lookalike genera. Comments: Acacia is a very large and diverse genus, containing several hundred species, ranging from woods weighing less than black cherry (Prunus serotina)—such as mangium (Acacia mangium)—to some of the heaviest and hardest woods on earth—such as waddywood (Acacia peuce). Because of this great diversity within the genus, it is nearly impossible [...]