Need a new search?

If you didn't find what you were looking for, try a new search!

Black Willow

Black Willow (Salix nigra) Common Name(s): Black WillowScientific Name: Salix nigraDistribution: Eastern United StatesTree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 26 lbs/ft3 (415 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .36, .42Janka Hardness: 430 lbf (1,920 N)Modulus of Rupture: 7,800 lbf/in2 (53.8 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,010,000 lbf/in2 (6.97 GPa)Crushing Strength: 4,100 lbf/in2 (28.3 MPa)Shrinkage: Radial: 3.3%, Tangential: 8.7%, Volumetric: 13.9%, T/R Ratio: 2.6Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a reddish or grayish brown, sometimes with darker streaks. The sapwood is white to tan, and isn't always clearly or sharply demarcated from heartwood.Grain/Texture: Willow usually has an interlocked or irregular grain with a medium to fine uniform texture.Endgrain: Semi-ring-porous (very subtle change in pore size from earlywood to latewood sometimes overlooked as diffuse-porous); medium to large pores in no specific arrangement, moderately numerous to numerous; commonly in radial multiples of 2-3; narrow rays not visible—sometimes even with the aid of hand lens, spacing normal to close; parenchyma banded (marginal).Rot Resistance: Rated as non-durable to perishable, and also susceptible to insect attack.Workability: With its low density and interlocked grain, willow has very poor machining characteristics, frequently resulting in fuzzy surfaces or tearout. Willow also tends to develop numerous drying defects and can [...]

Crack Willow

Crack Willow (Salix fragilis) Common Name(s): Crack WillowScientific Name: Salix fragilisDistribution: Native to Europe; also naturalized throughout North AmericaTree Size: 35-60 ft (10-18 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 27 lbs/ft3 (430 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .34, .43Janka Hardness: 640 lbf (2,830 N)Modulus of Rupture: 9,410 lbf/in2 (64.9 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,152,000 lbf/in2 (7.95 GPa)Crushing Strength: 3,530 lbf/in2 (24.4 MPa)Shrinkage:No data availableColor/Appearance: Heartwood ranges from a light tan to a deeper reddish brown, sometimes with darker streaks. The sapwood is white to tan, and isn't always clearly or sharply demarcated from heartwood.Grain/Texture: Crack Willow has a straight grain with a fine to medium uniform texture.Endgrain: Semi-ring-porous (very subtle change in pore size from earlywood to latewood sometimes overlooked as diffuse-porous); medium to large pores in no specific arrangement, moderately numerous to numerous; commonly in radial multiples of 2-3; narrow rays not visible—sometimes even with the aid of hand lens, spacing normal to close; parenchyma banded (marginal).Rot Resistance: Rated as non-durable to perishable, and also susceptible to insect attack.Workability: With its low density, Crack Willow can have poor machining characteristics, frequently resulting in fuzzy surfaces during planing. Willow also tends to develop numerous drying defects and can be difficult to season. [...]

White Willow

White Willow (Salix nigra pictured) Common Name(s): White WillowScientific Name: Salix albaDistribution: Europe and western and central AsiaTree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 3-4 ft (1-1.2 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 25 lbs/ft3 (400 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .34, .40Janka Hardness: 570 lbf (2,530 N)Modulus of Rupture: 8,150 lbf/in2 (56.2 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,125,000 lbf/in2 (7.76 GPa)Crushing Strength: 3,900 lbf/in2 (26.9 MPa)Shrinkage: Radial: 4.2%, Tangential: 7.2%, Volumetric: 11.5%, T/R Ratio: 1.7Color/Appearance: Heartwood is tan to pinkish brown. The sapwood is yellowish white, and is not always clearly or sharply demarcated from heartwood.Grain/Texture: White Willow has a straight grain with a fine to medium uniform texture.Endgrain: Semi-ring-porous (very subtle change in pore size from earlywood to latewood sometimes overlooked as diffuse-porous); medium to large pores in no specific arrangement, moderately numerous to numerous; commonly in radial multiples of 2-3; narrow rays not visible—sometimes even with the aid of hand lens, spacing normal to close; parenchyma banded (marginal).Rot Resistance: Rated as non-durable to perishable, and also susceptible to insect attack.Workability: With its low density, willow has poor machining characteristics, frequently resulting in fuzzy surfaces. Willow also tends to develop numerous drying defects and can be difficult to season. Glues and finishes well.Odor: [...]

Willow Oak

Willow Oak (Quercus phellos) Common Name(s): Willow OakScientific Name: Quercus phellosDistribution: Eastern United StatesTree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 48 lbs/ft3 (770 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .56, .77Janka Hardness: 1,460 lbf (6,490 N)Modulus of Rupture: 14,860 lbf/in2 (102.4 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,804,000 lbf/in2 (12.44 GPa)Crushing Strength: 7,040 lbf/in2 (48.6 MPa)Shrinkage:Radial: 5.0%, Tangential: 9.6%, Volumetric: 18.9%, T/R Ratio: 1.9Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium reddish-brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, White Oak tends to be slightly more olive-colored, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of oak.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Rot Resistance: Red oaks such as Willow Oak do not have the level of decay and rot resistance that White Oaks possess. Durability should be considered minimal.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. See the articles Wood Allergies [...]

Diamond Willow

Diamond Willow does not refer to a particular species of willow, but is a description of an abnormal growth form of certain fungus-infected willow trees. The tree grows diamond-shaped cankers in response to the fungus. These deformations create interesting shapes and patterns—especially once the bark has been removed—making diamond willow a prized material for use in walking sticks and other carved objects. There are six or seven currently known species of willow (out of hundreds of species) that produce the diamond growth formations, the most common being Bebb's Willow (Salix bebbiana). ebay

Worldwide Woods, a new poster

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KjAfSffIQdA Temporarily unavailable! Please use the email signup list below to be notified as soon as the poster becomes available for sale. Over 500 worldwide woods pictured 24" wide (61 cm) x 36" tall (91 cm) Divided into 8 geographical regions $30 (shipped by Amazon.com) Alder, Red (Alnus rubra) Ash, Black (Fraxinus nigra) Ash, Green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) Ash, White (Fraxinus americana) Aspen, Bigtooth (Populus grandidentata) Aspen, Quaking (Populus tremuloides) Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) Basswood (Tilia americana) Beech, American (Fagus grandifolia) Birch, Paper (Betula papyrifera) Birch, Yellow (Betula alleghaniensis) Box Elder (Acer negundo) Buckeye, Yellow (Aesculus flava) Buckthorn, Cascara (Rhamnus purshiana) Butternut (Juglans cinerea) Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa) Cedar, Atlantic White (Chamaecyparis thyoides) Cedar, Eastern Red (Juniperus virginiana) Cedar, Incense (Calocedrus decurrens) Cedar, Northern White (Thuja occidentalis) Cedar, Port Orford (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) Cedar, Western Red (Thuja plicata) Cedar, Yellow (Cupressus nootkatensis) Cherry, Black (Prunus serotina) Chestnut, American (Castanea dentata) Chinkapin (Chrysolepis chrysophylla) Coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus) [...]

About the Project

How "The Wood Database" got started... It all began back in April of 2007; I had recently checked out some wood identification books at the library, and I wanted a way to organize all of the most helpful data into a single reference file on my computer. After cataloging the wood’s common and scientific names, weight, approximate cost, and any other notes or observations that I thought were unusual to that species of wood, I printed the file out and used it as a reference guide in my shop. (At that time, I was involved in making psalteries—a type of stringed musical instrument.) Over time, I found myself referencing this chart so many times, and I had made so many additions and alterations to it—adding my own observations, density readings, etc.—that it became nearly indispensable. Many times when a project would come up, I would consult the chart as a guide to help me use the most appropriate wood possible. How my wood list grew into an online project Eventually, I realized that all of the data that I found in most wood identification books available [...]

Poplar, Cottonwood, and Aspen: What’s What?

by Eric MeierIn the United States, the term "Poplar" almost always refers to a specific wood species: Liriodendron tulipifera. Other common names for this wood include Yellow Poplar, American Tulipwood, or Tulip Poplar. The only problem with referring to this species as "Poplar" is that it isn't actually a type of poplar. That title properly belongs to a genus of trees appropriately named Populus. Types of PoplarLiriodendron genus (not closely related to true poplars, it's actually from the Magnoliaceae family, and is technically closer in relation to the various Magnolia species)Yellow Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera)Also referred to by the following names: Tulip Poplar, American Tulipwood, or simply "Poplar" (in North America).Populus genus (this contains true poplars, as well as related trees such as cottonwood and aspen)White Poplar (Populus alba)Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera)Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides)Bigtooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata)Black Poplar (Populus nigra)European Aspen (Populus tremula)Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides)Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)Characteristics of poplar woodRegardless of the genus, all poplar woods (true or otherwise) have a few similarities.They are all relatively lightweight and soft (as a matter of fact, Populus species rank among the very softest woods in the world).They all have relatively small pores which finish to a smooth texture without the need for pore fillers. Most of [...]

WOOD! book: Identifying and Using Hundreds of Woods Worldwide

AN AMAZON BEST-SELLER   BE BACK IN A JIFFY... The book is temporarily out of stock! I've got more books on the way, but sometimes trucks can be slow... So use the form below to be notified just as soon as the book is back in stock. (5/31/2019) EMAIL ADDRESS 272 Pages 8.5" x 11" page size (22 cm x 28 cm). Full color throughout; Hundreds of images. Hardcover With a sewn binding and jacket-less design to stand up to the rigors of nearly any wood shop. $35 Price Robust, trusted ordering through Amazon. Free domestic shipping; reasonable int’l rates.* Over 350 woods covered Over 100 full-page wood profiles Over 100 half-page wood profiles Data on over 150 related species * Shipping currently not available to Canada or Australia. WOOD SPECIES COVERED IN THE BOOK Full-page profile [...]

Sessile Oak

Sessile Oak (Q. alba pictured) Common Name(s): Sessile OakScientific Name: Quercus petraeaDistribution: Most of Europe, to Asia MinorTree Size: 80-115 ft (24-35 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 44 lbs/ft3 (710 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .57, .71Janka Hardness: 1,120 lbf (4,990 N)Modulus of Rupture: 14,080 lbf/in2 (97.1 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,518,000 lbf/in2 (10.47 GPa)Crushing Strength: 6,860 lbf/in2 (47.3 MPa)Shrinkage:Radial: 4.5%, Tangential: 9.7%, Volumetric: 14.2%, T/R Ratio: 2.2Color/Appearance: Has a medium yellowish-brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain. May have irregular or interlocked grain depending on growing conditions of the tree.Rot Resistance: Sessile Oak has been rated as having very good resistance to decay, and is commonly used in boatbuilding applications.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.Pricing/Availability: Widely grown and available in [...]

Japanese Oak

Japanese Oak (Q. alba pictured) Common Name(s): Japanese Oak, Mongolian OakScientific Name: Quercus mongolicaDistribution: Japan and eastern AsiaTree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 43 lbs/ft3 (680 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .64, .68Janka Hardness: 1,200 lbf (5,320 N)**Estimated hardness based on specific gravityModulus of Rupture: No data availableElastic Modulus: 1,525,000 lbf/in2 (10.51 GPa)Crushing Strength: 8,290 lbf/in2 (57.2 MPa)Shrinkage: No data availableColor/Appearance: Heartwood is a light to medium brown, commonly with an olive cast. Nearly white to light brown sapwood is not always sharply demarcated from the heartwood. Quartersawn sections display prominent ray fleck patterns. Japanese Oak is reported to have a larger percentage of sapwood and a smaller heartwood section, with lighter overall color than White Oak; ray fleck is also reported to be less pronounced.Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a coarse, uneven texture. Endgrain: Ring-porous; 2-4 rows of large, exclusively solitary earlywood pores, numerous small to very small latewood pores in radial arrangement; tyloses common (though not as prevalent as White Oak); growth rings distinct; rays large and visible without lens; apotracheal parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates (short lines between rays).Rot Resistance: Reports are variable; Japanese Oak tends to have a wider proportion of sapwood, which makes it more vulnerable to insects/borers, as well as [...]

Oregon White Oak

Oregon White Oak (Quercus garryana) Common Name(s): Oregon White OakScientific Name: Quercus garryanaDistribution: Pacific Northwestern United StatesTree Size: 65-85 ft (20-25 m) tall, 3-4 ft (1-1.2 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 51 lbs/ft3 (815 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .64, .81Janka Hardness: 1,640 lbf (7,310 N)Modulus of Rupture: 10,200 lbf/in2 (70.3 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,090,000 lbf/in2 (7.51 GPa)Crushing Strength: 7,320 lbf/in2 (50.5 MPa)Shrinkage: Radial: 4.2%, Tangential: 9.0%, Volumetric: 13.2%, T/R Ratio: 2.1Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, Red Oak tends to be slightly redder, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of oak.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Rot Resistance: Good rot resistance: frequently used in boatbuilding applications.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.Pricing/Availability: Slightly more expensive than Red Oak, White [...]

Overcup Oak

Overcup Oak (Quercus lyrata) Common Name(s): Overcup OakScientific Name: Quercus lyrataDistribution: Eastern United StatesTree Size: 60-90 ft (18-27 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 47 lbs/ft3 (760 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .57, .76Janka Hardness: 1,190 lbf (5,290 N)Modulus of Rupture: 12,600 lbf/in2 (86.9 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,420,000 lbf/in2 (9.80 GPa)Crushing Strength: 6,200 lbf/in2 (42.8 MPa)Shrinkage:Radial: 5.3%, Tangential: 12.7%, Volumetric: 16.0%, T/R Ratio: 2.4Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, Red Oak tends to be slightly redder, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of Oak.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Endgrain: Ring-porous; 2-4 rows of large, exclusively solitary earlywood pores, numerous small to very small latewood pores in radial arrangement; tyloses abundant; growth rings distinct; rays large and visible without lens; apotracheal parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates (short lines between rays).Rot Resistance: Overcup Oak has been rated as having very good resistance to decay.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported [...]

Post Oak

Post Oak (Quercus stellata) Common Name(s): Post OakScientific Name: Quercus stellataDistribution: Eastern United StatesTree Size: 40-60 ft (12-18 m) tall, 1-3 ft (.3-1 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 47 lbs/ft3 (750 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .60, .75Janka Hardness: 1,350 lbf (5,990 N)Modulus of Rupture: 13,070 lbf/in2 (90.1 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,495,000 lbf/in2 (10.31 GPa)Crushing Strength: 6,530 lbf/in2 (45.1 MPa)Shrinkage:Radial: 5.4%, Tangential: 9.8%, Volumetric: 16.2%, T/R Ratio: 1.8Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, Red Oak tends to be slightly redder, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of Oak.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Rot Resistance: Post Oak has been rated as having very good resistance to decay. It is said that this wood has been used for fence posts, and may be where it got its name.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. See [...]

Brown Oak

Brown Oak is technically not a distinct species of oak, but rather refers to oak (almost always English Oak or another European species) that has been infected with a fungus. This fungus (Fistulina hepatica) has the effect of turning the wood a deep brown color. Once the wood has been cut and dried, the fungus dies, leaving a rich golden brown lumber.Brown Oak is obviously not as common as regular oak, and the demand seems to be elevated, so prices are likely to be high for what could be considered a "domestic" hardwood for those in Europe—with prices going even higher for imported Brown Oak in the United States. Nonetheless, many people are willing to pay a premium for the rich, aged-look of Brown Oak.A special thanks to Steve Earis for providing the wood sample, veneer, and turned photo of this wood species. Brown Oak (sanded) Brown Oak (sealed) Brown Oak (endgrain) Brown Oak (endgrain 10x) Brown Oak (turned) Brown Oak (70" x 8.3")   Related Species:Black Oak (Quercus velutina)Bog OakBur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa)California Black Oak (Quercus kelloggii)Cherrybark Oak (Quercus pagoda)Chestnut Oak (Quercus prinus)English Oak (Quercus robur)Holm Oak (Quercus ilex)Japanese Oak (Quercus mongolica)Laurel Oak (Quercus laurifolia)Live Oak (Quercus [...]

Swamp Chestnut Oak

Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus michauxii) Common Name(s): Swamp Chestnut OakScientific Name: Quercus michauxiiDistribution: Southern and Central United StatesTree Size: 60-80 ft (18-24 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 49 lbs/ft3 (780 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .60, .78Janka Hardness: 1,230 lbf (5,460 N)Modulus of Rupture: 13,760 lbf/in2 (94.9 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,753,000 lbf/in2 (12.09 GPa)Crushing Strength: 7,200 lbf/in2 (49.6 MPa)Shrinkage:Radial: 5.2%, Tangential: 10.8%, Volumetric: 16.4%, T/R Ratio: 2.1Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, Red Oak tends to be slightly redder, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of Oak.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Rot Resistance: Swamp Chestnut Oak has been rated as being moderately durable, and moderately resistant to decay.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.Pricing/Availability: [...]

Swamp White Oak

Swamp White Oak (Quercus bicolor) Common Name(s): Swamp White OakScientific Name: Quercus bicolorDistribution: Eastern and Midwestern United StatesTree Size: 50-80 ft (15-24 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 48 lbs/ft3 (765 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .64, .77Janka Hardness: 1,600 lbf (7,140 N)Modulus of Rupture: 17,400 lbf/in2 (120.0 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 2,029,000 lbf/in2 (13.99 GPa)Crushing Strength: 8,400 lbf/in2 (57.9 MPa)Shrinkage: Radial: 5.5%, Tangential: 10.6%, Volumetric: 17.7%, T/R Ratio: 1.9Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, Red Oak tends to be slightly redder, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of Oak.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Rot Resistance: Swamp White Oak has been rated as having very good resistance to decay.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.Pricing/Availability: Slightly [...]

Bog Oak

Bog Oak, much like Brown Oak, is not a specific species, but is rather a term that designates oak that has been buried in a peat bog for hundreds or sometimes thousands of years. The extremely low oxygen conditions of the bog protect the wood from normal decay, while the underlying peat provides acidic conditions where iron salts and other minerals react with the tannins in the wood, gradually giving it a distinct dark brown to almost black color.Though Bog Oak does not describe a specific tree, it tends to most frequently occur in the United Kingdom, with English Oak being the most commonly salvaged species taken from bogs. Since there is such a limited supply of the wood—with Bog Oak essentially being the very early stages of fossilization—prices for this type of wood are very high.A special thanks to Steve Earis for providing the wood sample of this wood species. Bog Oak (sanded) Bog Oak (sealed) Bog Oak (endgrain) Bog Oak (endgrain 10x) Related Species:Black Oak (Quercus velutina)Brown OakBur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa)California Black Oak (Quercus kelloggii)Cherrybark Oak (Quercus pagoda)Chestnut Oak (Quercus prinus)English Oak (Quercus robur)Holm Oak (Quercus ilex)Japanese Oak (Quercus mongolica)Laurel Oak (Quercus laurifolia)Live Oak (Quercus virginiana)Oregon White Oak (Quercus garryana)Overcup Oak (Quercus lyrata)Pin Oak (Quercus palustris)Post Oak [...]

English Oak

English Oak (Quercus robur) Common Name(s): English Oak, European OakScientific Name: Quercus roburDistribution: Most of Europe, to Asia Minor, and North AfricaTree Size: 80-115 ft (24-35 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 42 lbs/ft3 (675 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .53, .67Janka Hardness: 1,120 lbf (4,980 N)Modulus of Rupture: 14,100 lbf/in2 (97.1 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,544,000 lbf/in2 (10.60 GPa)Crushing Strength: 6,720 lbf/in2 (46.3 MPa)Shrinkage:Radial: 4.7%, Tangential: 8.4%, Volumetric: 13.0%, T/R Ratio: 1.8Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light to medium brown, commonly with an olive cast, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Nearly white to light brown sapwood is not always sharply demarcated from the heartwood. Quartersawn sections display prominent ray fleck patterns.Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a coarse, uneven texture. May have irregular or interlocked grain depending on growing conditions of the tree.Endgrain: Ring-porous; 2-4 rows of large, exclusively solitary earlywood pores, numerous small to very small latewood pores in radial arrangement; tyloses abundant; growth rings distinct; rays large and visible without lens; apotracheal parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates (short lines between rays).Rot Resistance: English Oak has been rated as having very good resistance to decay, and is commonly used in boatbuilding applications.Workability: Produces good results with hand [...]

Live Oak

Live Oak (Quercus virginiana) Common Name(s): Live Oak, Southern Live OakScientific Name: Quercus virginianaDistribution: Southeastern United StatesTree Size: 40-60 ft (12-18 m) tall, 4-6 ft (1.2-1.8 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 63 lbs/ft3 (1,000 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .80, 1.00Janka Hardness: 2,680 lbf (12,920 N)Modulus of Rupture: 18,220 lbf/in2 (125.6 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,960,000 lbf/in2 (13.52 GPa)Crushing Strength: 8,810 lbf/in2 (60.8 MPa)Shrinkage: Radial: 6.6%, Tangential: 9.5%, Volumetric: 14.7%, T/R Ratio: 1.4Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, Red Oak tends to be slightly redder, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of Oak.Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a coarse, uneven texture. May have irregular grain depending on growing conditions of the tree.Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; exclusively solitary; large to very large pores arranged radially, few; tyloses abundant; parenchyma vasicentric, diffuse-in-aggregates; very wide aggregate rays and narrow rays, spacing normal.Rot Resistance: Live Oak has been rated as having very good resistance to decay, and has been used frequently in ship and boatbuilding.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well. Though, due to its incredible density, (especially for an oak), Live Oak is harder to work with [...]

Turkey Oak

Turkey Oak (Quercus cerris) Common Name(s): Turkey Oak, Turkish OakScientific Name: Quercus cerrisDistribution: Europe and Asia MinorTree Size: 80-120 ft (25-37 m) tall, 4-6 ft (1.2-2.0 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 45 lbs/ft3 (720 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .54, .72Janka Hardness: 1,200 lbf (5,340 N)**Estimated hardness based on specific gravityModulus of Rupture: 16,570 lbf/in2 (114.3 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,568,000 lbf/in2 (10.81 GPa)Crushing Strength: 8,170 lbf/in2 (56.4 MPa)Shrinkage: Radial: 6.0%, Tangential: 10.0%, Volumetric: 16.0%, T/R Ratio: ~1.7Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium reddish-brown color.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Rot Resistance: Falls somewhere between durable and moderately durable.Workability: Turkey Oak is said to work similarly to oaks found in the United States.Odor: No data available.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.Pricing/Availability: No data available.Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.Common Uses: No data available.Comments: Turkey Oak does not belong to either the White or Red Oak groups, but is divided [...]

Holm Oak

Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) Common Name(s): Holm Oak, Holly OakScientific Name: Quercus ilexDistribution: Mediterranean BasinTree Size: 65-85 ft (20-25 m) tall, 3-4 ft (1-1.2 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 50 lbs/ft3 (800 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .62, .80Janka Hardness: 1,610 lbf (7,150 N)Modulus of Rupture: No data available*Elastic Modulus: No data available*Crushing Strength: No data available**Values most likely very similar to White OakShrinkage:Radial: 4.6%, Tangential: 8.4%, Volumetric: 13.0%, T/R Ratio: 1.8Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Rot Resistance: Good rot resistance: frequently used in boatbuilding applications.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.Pricing/Availability: Rarely if ever imported, Holm Oak is likely only available in or around its natural range surrounding the Mediterraenean Basin. Prices are likely to be comparable to [...]

Southern Red Oak

Southern Red Oak (Quercus falcata) Common Name(s): Southern Red Oak, Spanish OakScientific Name: Quercus falcataDistribution: Southeastern United StatesTree Size: 80-100 ft (25-30 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 42 lbs/ft3 (675 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .52, .68Janka Hardness: 1,060 lbf (4,720 N)Modulus of Rupture: 12,040 lbf/in2 (83.0 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,480,000 lbf/in2 (10.20 GPa)Crushing Strength: 6,090 lbf/in2 (42.0 MPa)Shrinkage:Radial: 4.7%, Tangential: 11.3%, Volumetric: 16.1%, T/R Ratio: 2.4Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium reddish-brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, White Oak tends to be slightly more olive-colored, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of oak.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Rot Resistance: Red oaks such as Southern Red Oak do not have the level of decay and rot resistance that White Oaks possess. Durability should be considered minimal.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. [...]

Chestnut Oak

Chestnut Oak (Quercus prinus) Common Name(s): Chestnut OakScientific Name: Quercus prinusDistribution: Eastern United StatesTree Size: 60-70 ft (18-22 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 47 lbs/ft3 (750 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .57, .75Janka Hardness: 1,130 lbf (5,030 N)Modulus of Rupture: 13,300 lbf/in2 (91.7 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,590,000 lbf/in2 (11.00 GPa)Crushing Strength: 6,830 lbf/in2 (47.1 MPa)Shrinkage:Radial: 5.3%,Tangential: 10.8%, Volumetric: 16.4%, T/R Ratio: 2.0Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, Red Oak tends to be slightly redder, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of Oak.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Rot Resistance: Chestnut Oak has been rated as having very good resistance to decay.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.Pricing/Availability: Slightly more expensive than Red Oak, [...]

Bur Oak

Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa) Common Name(s): Bur Oak, Burr Oak, Mossycup OakScientific Name: Quercus macrocarpaDistribution: Eastern and Midwestern United States and south-central CanadaTree Size: 80-100 ft (24-30 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 45 lbs/ft3 (725 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .57, .72Janka Hardness: 1,360 lbf (6,030 N)Modulus of Rupture: 10,920 lbf/in2 (75.3 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,040,000 lbf/in2 (7.17 GPa)Crushing Strength: 5,890 lbf/in2 (40.6 MPa)Shrinkage:Radial: 4.4%, Tangential: 8.8%, Volumetric: 12.7%, T/R Ratio: 2.0Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, Red Oak tends to be slightly redder, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of Oak.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Endgrain: Ring-porous; 2-4 rows of large, exclusively solitary earlywood pores, numerous small to very small latewood pores in radial arrangement; tyloses abundant; growth rings distinct; rays large and visible without lens; apotracheal parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates (short lines between rays).Rot Resistance: Bur Oak has been rated as having very good resistance to decay.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe [...]

White Oak

White Oak (Quercus alba) Common Name(s): White OakScientific Name: Quercus albaDistribution: Eastern United StatesTree Size: 65-85 ft (20-25 m) tall, 3-4 ft (1-1.2 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 47 lbs/ft3 (755 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .60, .75Janka Hardness: 1,350 lbf (5,990 N)Modulus of Rupture: 14,830 lbf/in2 (102.3 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,762,000 lbf/in2 (12.15 GPa)Crushing Strength: 7,370 lbf/in2 (50.8 MPa)Shrinkage:Radial: 5.6%, Tangential: 10.5%, Volumetric: 16.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.9Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light to medium brown, commonly with an olive cast. Nearly white to light brown sapwood is not always sharply demarcated from the heartwood. Quartersawn sections display prominent ray fleck patterns. Conversely, Red Oak tends to be slightly redder, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of oak.Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a coarse, uneven texture. Endgrain: Ring-porous; 2-4 rows of large, exclusively solitary earlywood pores, numerous small to very small latewood pores in radial arrangement; tyloses abundant; growth rings distinct; rays large and visible without lens; apotracheal parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates (short lines between rays).Rot Resistance: Rated as very durable; frequently used in boatbuilding and tight cooperage applications.Workability: Produces good results with hand and machine tools. Has moderately high shrinkage values, resulting in mediocre dimensional stability, especially in flatsawn boards. Can react with [...]

Water Oak

Water Oak (Quercus nigra) Common Name(s): Water OakScientific Name: Quercus nigraDistribution: Eastern United StatesTree Size: 50-80 ft (15-24 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 45 lbs/ft3 (725 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .56, .73Janka Hardness: 1,190 lbf (5,290 N)Modulus of Rupture: 16,620 lbf/in2 (114.6 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 2,034,000 lbf/in2 (14.02 GPa)Crushing Strength: 6,770 lbf/in2 (46.7 MPa)Shrinkage:Radial: 4.4%, Tangential: 9.8%, Volumetric: 16.1%, T/R Ratio: 2.2Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium reddish-brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, White Oak tends to be slightly more olive-colored, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of oak.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Rot Resistance: Red oaks such as Water Oak do not have the level of decay and rot resistance that White Oaks possess. Durability should be considered minimal.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. See the articles Wood Allergies [...]

Shumard Oak

Shumard Oak (Quercus shumardii) Common Name(s): Shumard Oak Scientific Name: Quercus shumardii Distribution: Southeastern United States Tree Size: 80-115 ft (25-35 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 46 lbs/ft3 (730 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .56, .73 Janka Hardness: 1,290 lbf (5,750 N)* *Estimated hardness based on specific gravity Modulus of Rupture: 17,830 lbf/in2 (123.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 2,154,000 lbf/in2 (14.86 GPa) Crushing Strength: No data available Shrinkage: No data available Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light to medium brown, commonly with a reddish cast. Nearly white to light brown sapwood is not always sharply demarcated from the heartwood. Quartersawn sections display prominent ray fleck patterns. Conversely, White Oak tends to be slightly more olive-colored, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of oak. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a coarse, uneven texture. The pores are so large and open that it is said that a person can blow into one end of the wood, and air will come out the other end: provided that the grain runs straight enough. (See the video below.) Endgrain: Ring-porous; 2-4 rows of large, exclusively solitary earlywood pores, numerous small latewood pores in radial arrangement; tyloses absent; growth [...]

Scarlet Oak

Scarlet Oak (Quercus coccinea) Common Name(s): Scarlet OakScientific Name: Quercus coccineaDistribution: Eastern United StatesTree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 3-4 ft (1-1.2 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 46 lbs/ft3 (735 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .60, .73Janka Hardness: 1,400 lbf (6,230 N)Modulus of Rupture: 16,080 lbf/in2 (110.9 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,766,000 lbf/in2 (12.18 GPa)Crushing Strength: 8,250 lbf/in2 (56.9 MPa)Shrinkage:Radial: 4.4%, Tangential: 10.8%, Volumetric: 14.7%, T/R Ratio: 2.5Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium reddish-brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, White Oak tends to be slightly more olive-colored, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of oak.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Rot Resistance: Red oaks such as Scarlet Oak do not have the level of decay and rot resistance that White Oaks possess. Durability should be considered minimal.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. See the articles Wood Allergies [...]

Pin Oak

Pin Oak (Quercus palustris) Common Name(s): Pin OakScientific Name: Quercus palustrisDistribution: Eastern United StatesTree Size: 50-75 ft (15-23 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 44 lbs/ft3 (705 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .58, .71Janka Hardness: 1,500 lbf (6,650 N)Modulus of Rupture: 13,860 lbf/in2 (95.6 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,713,000 lbf/in2 (11.81 GPa)Crushing Strength: 6,750 lbf/in2 (46.6 MPa)Shrinkage:Radial: 4.3%, Tangential: 9.5%, Volumetric: 14.5%, T/R Ratio: 2.2Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium reddish-brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, White Oak tends to be slightly more olive-colored, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of oak.Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.Endgrain: Ring-porous; 2-4 rows of large, exclusively solitary earlywood pores, numerous small latewood pores in radial arrangement; tyloses absent; growth rings distinct; rays large and visible without lens; apotracheal parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates (short lines between rays).Rot Resistance: Red oaks such as Pin Oak do not have the level of decay and rot resistance that White Oaks possess. Durability should be considered minimal.Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it [...]