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Lodgepole Pine

Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Common Name(s): Lodgepole Pine, Shore Pine Scientific Name: Pinus contorta Distribution: Western North America Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter; size varies widely depending upon subspecies Average Dried Weight: 29 lbs/ft3 (465 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .38, .47 Janka Hardness: 480 lbf (2,140 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,400 lbf/in2 (64.8 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,340,000 lbf/in2 (9.24 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,370 lbf/in2 (37.0 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 4.3%, Tangential: 6.7%, Volumetric: 11.1%, T/R Ratio: 1.6 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light reddish/yellowish brown, sapwood is yellowish white. Heartwood color tends to be paler than Ponderosa Pine, and isn't always clearly demarcated from the sapwood. Lodgepole Pine commonly has pronounced dimples on flatsawn surfaces, (which are vaguely similar in overall appearance to Birdseye Maple). Such figure can help distinguish Lodgepole Pine from most other pines which lack this feature, with the exception of Ponderosa, Jeffrey, and Jack Pine, which also have similar—though usually less pronounced—dimpling. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with medium texture. Endgrain: Medium-sized resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition fairly abrupt, color contrast usually low; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate [...]

Pine Wood: An Overall Guide

by Eric MeierPine is pine, right? Not quite. There's quite a range in density and strength when it comes to the Pinus genus. Take one of the species of southern yellow pine, Shortleaf Pine, for instance: it has strength properties that are roughly equivalent to Red Oak (with the notable exception of hardness)—and in some categories, such as compression strength parallel to the grain, the pine is actually stronger!Yet there are also a lot of types of pine that are considerably weaker, and while they certainly have a prominent place in the construction industry, by using all species interchangeably with the generic name "pine," we create a very inaccurate picture of this interesting wood genus!It can help to know what you've really got, so let's go over some of the key types of pine seen today:The Soft PinesThis group is characterized by pines with a low density, even grain, and a gradual earlywood to latewood transition. Species within this group can’t be reliably separated from one another, but it can be helpful to recognize their features in order to distinguish them from the hard pines.There are three principal species of soft pine:Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana)Western White Pine (Pinus monticola)Eastern White Pine (Pinus [...]

Sugar Pine

Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Common Name(s): Sugar Pine Scientific Name: Pinus lambertiana Distribution: Mountainous regions of Pacific coast of United States Tree Size: 130-200 ft (40-60 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 25 lbs/ft3 (400 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .34, .40 Janka Hardness: 380 lbf (1,690 N) Modulus of Rupture: 8,200 lbf/in2 (56.6 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,190,000 lbf/in2 (8.21 GPa) Crushing Strength: 4,460 lbf/in2 (30.8 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 2.9%, Tangential: 5.6%, Volumetric: 7.9%, T/R Ratio: 1.9 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light brown, sometimes with a slightly reddish hue. Sapwood is a pale yellow to nearly white. Flatsawn surfaces frequently exhibit small brown streaks from the conspicuous resin canals present in the tree. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight with an even, medium to coarse texture. Endgrain: Very large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition gradual, color contrast low; tracheid diameter medium-large to very large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Sugar Pine is easy to work with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well. Odor: While not nearly as pronounced as many species of Southern Yellow Pine, Sugar [...]

Jack Pine

Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana) Common Name(s): Jack Pine Scientific Name: Pinus banksiana Distribution: Canada and northern United States Tree Size: 50-80 ft (15-24 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 31 lbs/ft3 (500 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .40, .50 Janka Hardness: 570 lbf (2,540 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,900 lbf/in2 (68.3 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,350,000 lbf/in2 (9.31 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,660 lbf/in2 (39.0 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 3.7%, Tangential: 6.6%, Volumetric: 10.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.8 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is orangish brown, wide sapwood is yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a coarse to medium texture. Endgrain: Medium-sized resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition abrupt, color contrast moderate to high; tracheid diameter medium. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Jack pine works well with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well. Odor: Jack Pine has a faint, resinous odor while being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Pricing/Availability: When sold as lumber, Jack Pine is mixed with other [...]

Jeffrey Pine

Jeffrey Pine (P. ponderosa pictured) Common Name(s): Jeffrey Pine Scientific Name: Pinus jeffreyi Distribution: Mountainous regions of southwestern Oregon to California and northern Mexico Tree Size: 100-165 ft (30-50 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 28 lbs/ft3 (450 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .37, .45 Janka Hardness: 500 lbf (2,220 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,300 lbf/in2 (64.1 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,240,000 lbf/in2 (8.55 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,530 lbf/in2 (38.1 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 4.4%, Tangential: 6.7%, Volumetric: 9.9%, T/R Ratio: 1.5 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is reddish brown, sapwood is yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with medium texture. Endgrain: Medium-large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition fairly abrupt, color contrast can vary depending on growth ring spacing; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Jeffrey pine works well with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well. Odor: Jeffrey Pine has a faint, vanilla or apple-like odor while being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for [...]

Limber Pine

Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) Common Name(s): Limber Pine, Rocky Mountain White Pine Scientific Name: Pinus flexilis Distribution: Mountainous regions of western North America Tree Size: 40-50 ft (12-15 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 28 lbs/ft3 (450 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .37, .45 Janka Hardness: 430 lbf (1,910 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,100 lbf/in2 (62.8 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,170,000 lbf/in2 (8.07 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,290 lbf/in2 (36.5 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 2.4%, Tangential: 5.1%, Volumetric: 8.2%, T/R Ratio: 2.1 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light brown, sometimes with a slightly reddish hue, narrow sapwood is a pale yellow to nearly white. Color tends to darken with age. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight with an even, medium texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition somewhat gradual, color contrast low; tracheid diameter medium to large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Limber Pine is easy to work with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well. Odor: Limber Pine has a faint, resinous odor while being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or [...]

Caribbean Pine

Caribbean Pine (P. palustris pictured) Common Name(s): Caribbean Pine Scientific Name: Pinus caribaea Distribution: Central America and the Caribbean; also grown on plantations worldwide Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 39 lbs/ft3 (625 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .51, .63 Janka Hardness: 1,110 lbf (4,920 N) Modulus of Rupture: 13,340 lbf/in2 (92.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,745,000 lbf/in2 (12.03 GPa) Crushing Strength: 7,890 lbf/in2 (54.4 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 6.3%, Tangential: 7.8%, Volumetric: 12.9%, T/R Ratio: 1.2 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is reddish brown, sapwood is yellowish white and is distinct from the heartwood. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a medium to coarse texture and a greasy feel. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition abrupt, color contrast high; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderately resistant to decay. Workability: Overall, Caribbean Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. Caribbean Pine glues and finishes well. Odor: Caribbean Pine has a strong resinous odor while being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. [...]

Radiata Pine

Radiata Pine (Pinus radiata) Common Name(s): Radiata Pine, Monterey Pine, Insignis Pine Scientific Name: Pinus radiata Distribution: Native to central and southern coastal California; also widely planted throughout the southern hemisphere Tree Size: 80-100 ft (24-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 32 lbs/ft3 (515 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .41, .51 Janka Hardness: 710 lbf (3,150 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,480 lbf/in2 (79.2 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,458,000 lbf/in2 (10.06 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,030 lbf/in2 (41.6 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 3.4%, Tangential: 6.7%, Volumetric: 10.7%, T/R Ratio: 2.0 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light brown, wide sapwood is a paler yellowish white, and is distinct from the heartwood. Radiata Pine lumber is plantation-grown, and generally has very wide growth rings and is knot-free. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a medium, even texture. Endgrain: Medium-large resin canals, very numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition gradual (with very wide growth rings), color contrast moderate to low; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as non-durable to perishable in regards to decay resistance. The sapwood is readily treated with preservatives and is used in exterior applications. Workability: Radiata Pine works well with both hand and machine tools. Glues and [...]

Red Pine

Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) Common Name(s): Red Pine, Norway Pine Scientific Name: Pinus resinosa Distribution: Northeastern North America Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 34 lbs/ft3 (545 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .41, .55 Janka Hardness: 560 lbf (2,490 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,000 lbf/in2 (75.9 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,630,000 lbf/in2 (11.24 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,070 lbf/in2 (41.9 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 3.8%, Tangential: 7.2%, Volumetric: 11.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.9 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light reddish brown, sapwood is pale yellow to nearly white. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a medium, even texture and a somewhat oily feel. Endgrain: Medium sized resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition fairly abrupt, color contrast medium; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: Heartwood is rated as moderately durable to non-durable regarding decay resistance. Red Pine is readily treated with preservatives and can thereafter be used in exterior applications such as posts or utility poles. Workability: Red Pine is easy to work with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well, though excess resin can sometimes cause problems with its paint-holding ability. Odor: Red Pine has a distinct, resinous odor when [...]

Eastern White Pine

Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) Common Name(s): Eastern White Pine Scientific Name: Pinus strobus Distribution: Eastern North America (also widely grown on plantations throughout its natural range) Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter (historically older-growth trees were much larger) Average Dried Weight: 25 lbs/ft3 (400 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .34, .40 Janka Hardness: 380 lbf (1,690 N) Modulus of Rupture: 8,600 lbf/in2 (59.3 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,240,000 lbf/in2 (8.55 GPa) Crushing Strength: 4,800 lbf/in2 (33.1 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 2.1%, Tangential: 6.1%, Volumetric: 8.2%, T/R Ratio: 2.9 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light brown, sometimes with a slightly reddish hue, sapwood is a pale yellow to nearly white. Color tends to darken with age. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight with an even, medium texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition gradual, color contrast fairly low; tracheid diameter medium to large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Eastern White Pine is easy to work with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well. Odor: Eastern White Pine has a faint, resinous odor while being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working [...]

Ponderosa Pine

Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) Common Name(s): Ponderosa Pine Scientific Name: Pinus ponderosa Distribution: Western North America Tree Size: 100-165 ft (30-50 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 28 lbs/ft3 (450 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .38, .45 Janka Hardness: 460 lbf (2,050 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,400 lbf/in2 (64.8 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,290,000 lbf/in2 (8.90 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,320 lbf/in2 (36.7 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 3.9%, Tangential: 6.2%, Volumetric: 9.7%, T/R Ratio: 1.6 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is reddish brown, sapwood is yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with medium texture. Endgrain: Medium-large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition fairly abrupt, color contrast can vary depending on growth ring spacing; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Ponderosa pine works well with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well. Odor: Ponderosa Pine has a faint, resinous odor while being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Pricing/Availability: Ponderosa Pine has a very wide [...]

Spruce Pine

Spruce Pine (P. clausa pictured) Common Name(s): Spruce Pine Scientific Name: Pinus glabra Distribution: Southeastern United States (coastal plain) Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 33 lbs/ft3 (525 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .42, .52 Janka Hardness: 700 lbf (3,110 N) Modulus of Rupture: 10,300 lbf/in2 (71.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,405,000 lbf/in2 (9.69 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,660 lbf/in2 (39.0 MPa) Shrinkage: No data available Color/Appearance: Heartwood is reddish brown, sapwood is yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a fine to medium texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition abrupt, color contrast relatively high; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Overall, Spruce Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. Spruce Pine glues and finishes well. Odor: Has a distinct smell that is shared among most species in the Pinus genus. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more [...]

Virginia Pine

Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana) Common Name(s): Virginia Pine, Scrub Pine Scientific Name: Pinus virginiana Distribution: Eastern United States Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 32 lbs/ft3 (515 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .45, .51 Janka Hardness: 740 lbf (3,290 N) Modulus of Rupture: 13,000 lbf/in2 (89.7 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,520,000 lbf/in2 (10.48 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,710 lbf/in2 (46.3 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 4.2%, Tangential: 7.2%, Volumetric: 11.9%, T/R Ratio: 1.7 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is reddish brown, wide sapwood is yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a medium texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition abrupt, color contrast relatively high; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Overall, Virginia Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. Virginia Pine glues and finishes well. Odor: Has a distinct smell that is shared among most species in the Pinus genus. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and [...]

Pinyon Pine

Pinyon Pine (Pinus edulis) Common Name(s): Pinyon Pine, Two-needle Pinyon, Colorado Pinyon Scientific Name: Pinus edulis Distribution: Southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico Tree Size: 30-50 ft (9-15 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 37 lbs/ft3 (595 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .50, .59 Janka Hardness: 860 lbf (3,830 N) Modulus of Rupture: 7,800 lbf/in2 (53.8 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,140,000 lbf/in2 (7.86 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,400 lbf/in2 (44.1 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 4.6%, Tangential: 5.2%, Volumetric: 9.9%, T/R Ratio: 1.1 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a yellowish brown. Due to its tpically short, stout trunk, knots and other grain irregularities are common. Grain/Texture: Grain can be irregular and full of knots, with a medium to fine texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition relatively gradual, color contrast low to moderate; tracheid diameter small to medium. Rot Resistance: Since Pinyon Pine isn't generally harvested as lumber, no known durability tests are available; however, a study done on standing dead trees indicates mediocre durability for the species. Workability: No data available. Odor: Pinyon Pine has a resinous odor when being worked. Pinyon Pine is also known for its distinctive [...]

Longleaf Pine

Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Common Name(s): Longleaf Pine Scientific Name: Pinus palustris Distribution: Southeastern United States, though also widely grown on plantations Tree Size: 100-115 ft (30-35 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 41 lbs/ft3 (650 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .54, .65 Janka Hardness: 870 lbf (4,120 N) Modulus of Rupture: 14,500 lbf/in2 (100.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,980,000 lbf/in2 (13.70 GPa) Crushing Strength: 8,470 lbf/in2 (58.4 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 5.1%, Tangential: 7.5%, Volumetric: 12.2%, T/R Ratio: 1.5 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is reddish brown, sapwood is yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a fine to medium texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary ; earlywood to latewood transition abrupt, color contrast high; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderately resistant to decay. Workability: Overall, Longleaf Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. Longleaf Pine glues and finishes well. Odor: Has a distinct smell that is shared among most species in the Pinus genus. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and [...]

Pond Pine

Pond Pine (P. clausa pictured) Common Name(s): Pond Pine, Marsh Pine Scientific Name: Pinus serotina Distribution: Eastern United States (Altantic coastal plain regions) Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 38 lbs/ft3 (610 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .51, .61 Janka Hardness: 740 lbf (3,290 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,600 lbf/in2 (80.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,750,000 lbf/in2 (12.07 GPa) Crushing Strength: 7,540 lbf/in2 (52.0 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 5.1%, Tangential: 7.1%, Volumetric: 11.2%, T/R Ratio: 1.4 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is reddish brown, wide sapwood is yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a medium texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition abrupt, color contrast relatively high; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Overall, Pond Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. Pond Pine glues and finishes well. Odor: Has a distinct smell that is shared among most species in the Pinus genus. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles [...]

Western White Pine

Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Common Name(s): Western White Pine, Idaho White Pine Scientific Name: Pinus monticola Distribution: Mountainous regions of western North America Tree Size: 100-150 ft (30-46 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 27 lbs/ft3 (435 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .35, .43 Janka Hardness: 420 lbf (1,870 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,700 lbf/in2 (66.9 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,460,000 lbf/in2 (10.07 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,040 lbf/in2 (34.8 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 4.1%, Tangential: 7.4%, Volumetric: 11.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.8 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light brown, sometimes with a slightly reddish hue, sapwood is a pale yellow to nearly white. Color tends to darken with age. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight with an even, medium texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition gradual, color contrast fairly low; tracheid diameter medium to large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Western White Pine is easy to work with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well. Odor: Western White Pine has a faint, resinous odor while being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin [...]

Table Mountain Pine

Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) Common Name(s): Table Mountain Pine Scientific Name: Pinus pungens Distribution: Eastern United States (primarily Appalachian Mountain region) Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 36 lbs/ft3 (575 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .49, .58 Janka Hardness: 730 lbf (3,250 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,600 lbf/in2 (80.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,550,000 lbf/in2 (10.69 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,830 lbf/in2 (47.1 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 3.4%, Tangential: 6.8%, Volumetric: 10.9%, T/R Ratio: 2.0 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is reddish brown, sapwood is yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a medium texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition abrupt, color contrast relatively high; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Overall, Table Mountain Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. Table Mountain Pine glues and finishes well. Odor: Has a distinct smell that is shared among most species in the Pinus genus. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies [...]

Pitch Pine

Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida) Common Name(s): Pitch Pine Scientific Name: Pinus rigida Distribution: Northeastern United States Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 2 ft (.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 34 lbs/ft3 (545 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .47, .55 Janka Hardness: 620 lbf (2,760 N) Modulus of Rupture: 10,800 lbf/in2 (74.5 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,430,000 lbf/in2 (9.86 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,940 lbf/in2 (41.0 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 4.0%, Tangential: 7.1%, Volumetric: 10.9%, T/R Ratio: 1.8 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is reddish brown, sapwood is yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a medium texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition abrupt, color contrast relatively high; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Overall, Pitch Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. Pitch Pine glues and finishes well. Odor: Has a distinct smell that is shared among most species in the Pinus genus. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for [...]

Sumatran Pine

Sumatran Pine (P. sylvestris pictured) Common Name(s): Sumatran Pine, Merkus Pine Scientific Name: Pinus merkusii Distribution: Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia) Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 44 lbs/ft3 (710 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .57, .71 Janka Hardness: 950 lbf (4,230 N) Modulus of Rupture: 13,980 lbf/in2 (96.4 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 2,161,000 lbf/in2 (14.90 GPa) Crushing Strength: 7,100 lbf/in2 (49.0 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 5.8%, Tangential: 8.8%, Volumetric: 14.6%, T/R Ratio: 1.5 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light reddish brown, demarcated sapwood is pale yellow to nearly white. Color tends to darken with age. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a medium, even texture. Rot Resistance: Heartwood is rated as non-durable to perishable regarding decay resistance. Sumatran Pine is also susceptible to termite/insect attack. Workability: Overall, Sumatran Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. Sumatran Pine glues and finishes well. Odor: Sumatran Pine has a mild, resinous odor when being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Pricing/Availability: Frequently mixed [...]

Shortleaf Pine

Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata) Common Name(s): Shortleaf Pine Scientific Name: Pinus echinata Distribution: Southeastern United States, though also widely grown on plantations Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 35 lbs/ft3 (570 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .47, .57 Janka Hardness: 690 lbf (3,070 N) Modulus of Rupture: 13,100 lbf/in2 (90.3 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,750,000 lbf/in2 (12.10 GPa) Crushing Strength: 7,270 lbf/in2 (50.1 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 4.6%, Tangential: 7.7%, Volumetric: 12.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.7 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is reddish brown, sapwood is yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a fine to medium texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary ; earlywood to latewood transition abrupt, color contrast high; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Overall, Shortleaf Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. It has a moderate dulling effect on cutting edges. Shortleaf Pine glues and finishes well. Odor: Has a distinct smell that is shared among most species in the Pinus genus. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions [...]

Maritime Pine

Maritime Pine (P. sylvestris pictured) Common Name(s): Maritime Pine Scientific Name: Pinus pinaster Distribution: Southwestern Europe; also grown on plantations in Europe Tree Size: 65-115 ft (20-35 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 31 lbs/ft3 (500 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .39, .50 Janka Hardness: 390 lbf (1,740 N) Modulus of Rupture: 10,590 lbf/in2 (73.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,238,000 lbf/in2 (8.54 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,660 lbf/in2 (39.0 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 4.5%, Tangential: 9.0%, Volumetric: 14.4%, T/R Ratio: 2.0 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light reddish brown, demarcated sapwood is pale yellow to nearly white. Color tends to darken with age. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a medium, even texture. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Overall, Maritime Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. Maritime Pine glues and finishes well. Odor: Maritime Pine has a distinct, resinous odor when being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Pricing/Availability: Maritime Pine is extensively grown on plantations in [...]

Slash Pine

Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii) Common Name(s): Slash Pine Scientific Name: Pinus elliottii Distribution: Southeastern United States, though also widely grown on plantations Tree Size: 60-100 ft (18-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 41 lbs/ft3 (655 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .54, .66 Janka Hardness: 760 lbf (3,380 N) Modulus of Rupture: 16,300 lbf/in2 (112.4 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,980,000 lbf/in2 (13.70 GPa) Crushing Strength: 8,140 lbf/in2 (56.1 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 5.4%, Tangential: 7.6%, Volumetric: 12.1%, T/R Ratio: 1.4 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is reddish brown, sapwood is yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a fine to medium texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary ; earlywood to latewood transition abrupt, color contrast high; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderately resistant to decay. Workability: Overall, Slash Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. Slash Pine glues and finishes well. Odor: Has a distinct smell that is shared among most species in the Pinus genus. Allergies/Toxicity: Slash pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity [...]

Scots Pine

Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Common Name(s): Scots PineScientific Name: Pinus sylvestrisDistribution: Native to Europe and northern Asia; also planted in New Zealand and Northeastern and Midwestern United States.Tree Size: 65-115 ft (20-35 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 34 lbs/ft3 (550 kg/m3)Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .39, .55Janka Hardness: 540 lbf (2,420 N)Modulus of Rupture: 12,080 lbf/in2 (83.3 MPa)Elastic Modulus: 1,461,000 lbf/in2 (10.08 GPa)Crushing Strength: 6,020 lbf/in2 (41.5 MPa)Shrinkage: Radial: 5.2%, Tangential: 8.3%, Volumetric: 13.6%, T/R Ratio: 1.6Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light reddish brown, demarcated sapwood is pale yellow to nearly white.Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a medium, even texture.Endgrain: Medium sized resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition fairly abrupt, color contrast medium; tracheid diameter medium-large.Rot Resistance: Heartwood is rated as moderately durable to non-durable regarding decay resistance. Scots Pine is readily treated with preservatives and can thereafter be used in exterior applications such as posts or utility poles.Workability: Scots Pine is easy to work with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well.Odor: Scots Pine has a mild, resinous odor when being worked.Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood [...]

Austrian Pine

Austrian Pine (Pinus nigra) Common Name(s): Austrian Pine, European Black Pine Scientific Name: Pinus nigra Distribution: Mediterranean regions of Europe and Asia Minor Tree Size: 65-115 ft (20-35 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 30 lbs/ft3 (475 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .39, .48 Janka Hardness: 660 lbf (2,920 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,340 lbf/in2 (64.4 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,568,000 lbf/in2 (10.81 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,570 lbf/in2 (38.4 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 4.1%, Tangential: 7.3%, Volumetric: 11.4%, T/R Ratio: 1.8 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light reddish brown, wide sapwood is pale yellow to nearly white. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a medium, even texture. Endgrain: Medium sized resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition fairly abrupt, color contrast medium; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: Heartwood is rated as moderately durable to non-durable regarding decay resistance. Workability: Austrian Pine is easy to work with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well. Odor: Austrian Pine has a mild, resinous odor when being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more [...]

Loblolly Pine

Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Common Name(s): Loblolly Pine Scientific Name: Pinus taeda Distribution: Southeastern United States, though also widely grown on plantations Tree Size: 100-115 ft (30-35 m) tall, 1.5-5 ft (.4-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 35 lbs/ft3 (570 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .47, .57 Janka Hardness: 690 lbf (3,070 N) Modulus of Rupture: 12,800 lbf/in2 (88.3 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,790,000 lbf/in2 (12.30 GPa) Crushing Strength: 7,130 lbf/in2 (49.2 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 4.8%, Tangential: 7.4%, Volumetric: 12.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.5 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is reddish brown, sapwood is yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a fine to medium texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary ; earlywood to latewood transition abrupt, color contrast high; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Overall, Loblolly Pine works fairly well with most tools, and it glues and finishes well. Odor: No characteristic odor. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Pricing/Availability: Should be widely available as construction lumber for a modest [...]

Sand Pine

Sand Pine (Pinus clausa) Common Name(s): Sand Pine Scientific Name: Pinus clausa Distribution: Southeastern United States (Florida and coastal Alabama) Tree Size: 16-30 ft (5-9 m) tall, 1 ft (.3 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 34 lbs/ft3 (545 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .46, .55 Janka Hardness: 730 lbf (3,250 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,600 lbf/in2 (80.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,410,000 lbf/in2 (9.72 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,920 lbf/in2 (47.7 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 3.9%, Tangential: 7.3%, Volumetric: 10.0%, T/R Ratio: 1.9 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is reddish brown, wide sapwood is yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a fine to medium texture. Endgrain: Large resin canals, numerous and evenly distributed, mostly solitary; earlywood to latewood transition abrupt, color contrast relatively high; tracheid diameter medium-large. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Overall, Sand Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. Sand Pine glues and finishes well. Odor: Has a distinct smell that is shared among most species in the Pinus genus. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood [...]

Khasi Pine

Khasi Pine (P. sylvestris pictured) Common Name(s): Khasi Pine, Benguet Pine Scientific Name: Pinus kesiya (syn. P. insularis) Distribution: India and southeast Asia; also grown on plantations in Africa and South America Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 3-4 ft (1-1.2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 38 lbs/ft3 (610 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .45, .61 Janka Hardness: 670 lbf (3,000 N) Modulus of Rupture: 12,610 lbf/in2 (87.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,776,000 lbf/in2 (12.25 GPa) Crushing Strength: 7,330 lbf/in2 (50.6 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 5.1%, Tangential: 8.4%, Volumetric: 13.6%, T/R Ratio: 1.6 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light reddish brown, sapwood is pale yellow and isn't clearly demarcated from the heartwood. Color tends to darken with age. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a medium texture. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Overall, Khasi Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. Khasi Pine glues and finishes well. Odor: Khasi Pine has a mild, resinous odor when being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity [...]

Ocote Pine

Ocote Pine (P. radiata pictured) Common Name(s): Ocote Pine, Mexican Yellow Pine Scientific Name: Pinus oocarpa Distribution: Mexico and Central America; also grown on plantations Tree Size: 80-115 ft (24-35 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 44 lbs/ft3 (700 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .55, .70 Janka Hardness: 950 lbf (4,240 N) Modulus of Rupture: 14,720 lbf/in2 (101.5 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 2,209,000 lbf/in2 (15.23 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,400 lbf/in2 (44.1 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 4.6%, Tangential: 7.5%, Volumetric: 12.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.6 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light brown, sapwood is a paler yellowish white. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a medium, even texture. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as moderately durable to non-durable in regards to decay resistance. Workability: Overall, Ocote Pine works fairly well with most tools, though the resin can gum up tools and clog sandpaper. Glues and finishes well. Odor: Ocote Pine has a distinct, resinous odor while being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Pricing/Availability: Ocote Pine is widely grown on plantations, though it is certainly not as widely available as [...]

Patula Pine

Patula Pine (P. radiata pictured) Common Name(s): Patula Pine Scientific Name: Pinus patula Distribution: Native to eastern Mexico; also grown on plantations in tropical regions Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 36 lbs/ft3 (575 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .45, .58 Janka Hardness: 550 lbf (2,450 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,500 lbf/in2 (79.3 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,463,000 lbf/in2 (10.09 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,160 lbf/in2 (35.6 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 4.1%, Tangential: 7.9%, Volumetric: 12.6%, T/R Ratio: 1.9 Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light pinkish brown, sapwood is a paler yellowish white, though not usually distinct from the heartwood. Grain/Texture: Straight grained with a medium, even texture. Rot Resistance: The heartwood is rated as non-durable to perishable in regards to decay resistance. Workability: Patula Pine works well with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well. Odor: Patula Pine has a faint, resinous odor while being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Pricing/Availability: Much like Radiata Pine, Patula Pine has a somewhat narrow natural distribution which is [...]