Lodgepole Pine

Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Common Name(s): Lodgepole Pine, Shore Pine Scientific Name: Pinus contorta Distribution: Western North America Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter; size varies widely depending upon subspecies Average Dried Weight: 29 lbs/ft3 (465 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .38, .47 Janka Hardness: 480 lbf (2,140 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,400 lbf/in2 (64.8 MPa) Elastic Modulus:...

Pine Wood: An Overall Guide

by Eric Meier Pine is pine, right? Not quite. There’s quite a range in density and strength when it comes to the Pinus genus. Take one of the species of southern yellow pine, Shortleaf Pine, for instance: it has strength properties that are roughly equivalent to Red Oak (with the notable exception of hardness)—and in some categories, such as compression strength parallel to the grain, the pine is actually stronger! Yet there are also a...

Jack Pine

Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana) Common Name(s): Jack Pine Scientific Name: Pinus banksiana Distribution: Canada and northern United States Tree Size: 50-80 ft (15-24 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 31 lbs/ft3 (500 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .40, .50 Janka Hardness: 570 lbf (2,540 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,900 lbf/in2 (68.3 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,350,000 lbf/in2 (9.31 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,660 lbf/in2...

Sugar Pine

Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Common Name(s): Sugar Pine Scientific Name: Pinus lambertiana Distribution: Mountainous regions of Pacific coast of United States Tree Size: 130-200 ft (40-60 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 25 lbs/ft3 (400 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .34, .40 Janka Hardness: 380 lbf (1,690 N) Modulus of Rupture: 8,200 lbf/in2 (56.6 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,190,000 lbf/in2 (8.21 GPa)...

Jeffrey Pine

Jeffrey Pine (P. ponderosa pictured) Common Name(s): Jeffrey Pine Scientific Name: Pinus jeffreyi Distribution: Mountainous regions of southwestern Oregon to California and northern Mexico Tree Size: 100-165 ft (30-50 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 28 lbs/ft3 (450 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .37, .45 Janka Hardness: 500 lbf (2,220 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,300 lbf/in2 (64.1 MPa) Elastic Modulus:...

Radiata Pine

Radiata Pine (Pinus radiata) Common Name(s): Radiata Pine, Monterey Pine, Insignis Pine Scientific Name: Pinus radiata Distribution: Native to central and southern coastal California; also widely planted throughout the southern hemisphere Tree Size: 80-100 ft (24-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 32 lbs/ft3 (515 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .41, .51 Janka Hardness: 710 lbf (3,150 N) Modulus of Rupture:...

Caribbean Pine

Caribbean Pine (P. palustris pictured) Common Name(s): Caribbean Pine Scientific Name: Pinus caribaea Distribution: Central America and the Caribbean; also grown on plantations worldwide Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 39 lbs/ft3 (625 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .51, .63 Janka Hardness: 1,110 lbf (4,920 N) Modulus of Rupture: 13,340 lbf/in2 (92.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus:...

Limber Pine

Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) Common Name(s): Limber Pine, Rocky Mountain White Pine Scientific Name: Pinus flexilis Distribution: Mountainous regions of western North America Tree Size: 40-50 ft (12-15 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 28 lbs/ft3 (450 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .37, .45 Janka Hardness: 430 lbf (1,910 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,100 lbf/in2 (62.8 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,170,000 lbf/in2...

Ponderosa Pine

Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) Common Name(s): Ponderosa Pine Scientific Name: Pinus ponderosa Distribution: Western North America Tree Size: 100-165 ft (30-50 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 28 lbs/ft3 (450 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .38, .45 Janka Hardness: 460 lbf (2,050 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,400 lbf/in2 (64.8 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,290,000 lbf/in2 (8.90 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,320...

Red Pine

Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) Common Name(s): Red Pine, Norway Pine Scientific Name: Pinus resinosa Distribution: Northeastern North America Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 34 lbs/ft3 (545 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .41, .55 Janka Hardness: 560 lbf (2,490 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,000 lbf/in2 (75.9 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,630,000 lbf/in2 (11.24 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,070...

Eastern White Pine

Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) Common Name(s): Eastern White Pine Scientific Name: Pinus strobus Distribution: Eastern North America (also widely grown on plantations throughout its natural range) Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter (historically older-growth trees were much larger) Average Dried Weight: 25 lbs/ft3 (400 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .34, .40 Janka Hardness: 380 lbf (1,690 N)...

Spruce Pine

Spruce Pine (P. clausa pictured) Common Name(s): Spruce Pine Scientific Name: Pinus glabra Distribution: Southeastern United States (coastal plain) Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 33 lbs/ft3 (525 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .42, .52 Janka Hardness: 700 lbf (3,110 N) Modulus of Rupture: 10,300 lbf/in2 (71.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,405,000 lbf/in2 (9.69 GPa) Crushing...

Pond Pine

Pond Pine (P. clausa pictured) Common Name(s): Pond Pine, Marsh Pine Scientific Name: Pinus serotina Distribution: Eastern United States (Altantic coastal plain regions) Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 38 lbs/ft3 (610 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .51, .61 Janka Hardness: 740 lbf (3,290 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,600 lbf/in2 (80.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,750,000 lbf/in2 (12.07...

Western White Pine

Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Common Name(s): Western White Pine, Idaho White Pine Scientific Name: Pinus monticola Distribution: Mountainous regions of western North America Tree Size: 100-150 ft (30-46 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 27 lbs/ft3 (435 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .35, .43 Janka Hardness: 420 lbf (1,870 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,700 lbf/in2 (66.9 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,460,000...

Pinyon Pine

Pinyon Pine (Pinus edulis) Common Name(s): Pinyon Pine, Two-needle Pinyon, Colorado Pinyon Scientific Name: Pinus edulis Distribution: Southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico Tree Size: 30-50 ft (9-15 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 37 lbs/ft3 (595 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .50, .59 Janka Hardness: 860 lbf (3,830 N) Modulus of Rupture: 7,800 lbf/in2 (53.8 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,140,000...

Longleaf Pine

Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Common Name(s): Longleaf Pine Scientific Name: Pinus palustris Distribution: Southeastern United States, though also widely grown on plantations Tree Size: 100-115 ft (30-35 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 41 lbs/ft3 (650 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .54, .65 Janka Hardness: 870 lbf (4,120 N) Modulus of Rupture: 14,500 lbf/in2 (100.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,980,000...

Virginia Pine

Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana) Common Name(s): Virginia Pine, Scrub Pine Scientific Name: Pinus virginiana Distribution: Eastern United States Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 32 lbs/ft3 (515 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .45, .51 Janka Hardness: 740 lbf (3,290 N) Modulus of Rupture: 13,000 lbf/in2 (89.7 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,520,000 lbf/in2 (10.48 GPa) Crushing Strength:...

Pitch Pine

Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida) Common Name(s): Pitch Pine Scientific Name: Pinus rigida Distribution: Northeastern United States Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 2 ft (.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 34 lbs/ft3 (545 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .47, .55 Janka Hardness: 620 lbf (2,760 N) Modulus of Rupture: 10,800 lbf/in2 (74.5 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,430,000 lbf/in2 (9.86 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,940 lbf/in2 (41.0 MPa)...

Sumatran Pine

Sumatran Pine (P. sylvestris pictured) Common Name(s): Sumatran Pine, Merkus Pine Scientific Name: Pinus merkusii Distribution: Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia) Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 44 lbs/ft3 (710 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .57, .71 Janka Hardness: 950 lbf (4,230 N) Modulus of Rupture: 13,980 lbf/in2 (96.4 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 2,161,000 lbf/in2 (14.90...

Table Mountain Pine

Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) Common Name(s): Table Mountain Pine Scientific Name: Pinus pungens Distribution: Eastern United States (primarily Appalachian Mountain region) Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 36 lbs/ft3 (575 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .49, .58 Janka Hardness: 730 lbf (3,250 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,600 lbf/in2 (80.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,550,000...

Maritime Pine

Maritime Pine (P. sylvestris pictured) Common Name(s): Maritime Pine Scientific Name: Pinus pinaster Distribution: Southwestern Europe; also grown on plantations in Europe Tree Size: 65-115 ft (20-35 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 31 lbs/ft3 (500 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .39, .50 Janka Hardness: 390 lbf (1,740 N) Modulus of Rupture: 10,590 lbf/in2 (73.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,238,000 lbf/in2...

Shortleaf Pine

Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata) Common Name(s): Shortleaf Pine Scientific Name: Pinus echinata Distribution: Southeastern United States, though also widely grown on plantations Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 35 lbs/ft3 (570 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .47, .57 Janka Hardness: 690 lbf (3,070 N) Modulus of Rupture: 13,100 lbf/in2 (90.3 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,750,000 lbf/in2...

Scots Pine

...Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Common Name(s): Scots Pine...

Slash Pine

Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii) Common Name(s): Slash Pine Scientific Name: Pinus elliottii Distribution: Southeastern United States, though also widely grown on plantations Tree Size: 60-100 ft (18-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 41 lbs/ft3 (655 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .54, .66 Janka Hardness: 760 lbf (3,380 N) Modulus of Rupture: 16,300 lbf/in2 (112.4 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,980,000 lbf/in2...

Austrian Pine

Austrian Pine (Pinus nigra) Common Name(s): Austrian Pine, European Black Pine Scientific Name: Pinus nigra Distribution: Mediterranean regions of Europe and Asia Minor Tree Size: 65-115 ft (20-35 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 30 lbs/ft3 (475 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .39, .48 Janka Hardness: 660 lbf (2,920 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,340 lbf/in2 (64.4 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,568,000 lbf/in2 (10.81...

Ocote Pine

Ocote Pine (P. radiata pictured) Common Name(s): Ocote Pine, Mexican Yellow Pine Scientific Name: Pinus oocarpa Distribution: Mexico and Central America; also grown on plantations Tree Size: 80-115 ft (24-35 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 44 lbs/ft3 (700 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .55, .70 Janka Hardness: 950 lbf (4,240 N) Modulus of Rupture: 14,720 lbf/in2 (101.5 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 2,209,000...

Khasi Pine

Khasi Pine (P. sylvestris pictured) Common Name(s): Khasi Pine, Benguet Pine Scientific Name: Pinus kesiya (syn. P. insularis) Distribution: India and southeast Asia; also grown on plantations in Africa and South America Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 3-4 ft (1-1.2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 38 lbs/ft3 (610 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .45, .61 Janka Hardness: 670 lbf (3,000 N) Modulus of Rupture: 12,610 lbf/in2...

Patula Pine

Patula Pine (P. radiata pictured) Common Name(s): Patula Pine Scientific Name: Pinus patula Distribution: Native to eastern Mexico; also grown on plantations in tropical regions Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 36 lbs/ft3 (575 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .45, .58 Janka Hardness: 550 lbf (2,450 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,500 lbf/in2 (79.3 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,463,000...

Sand Pine

Sand Pine (Pinus clausa) Common Name(s): Sand Pine Scientific Name: Pinus clausa Distribution: Southeastern United States (Florida and coastal Alabama) Tree Size: 16-30 ft (5-9 m) tall, 1 ft (.3 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 34 lbs/ft3 (545 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .46, .55 Janka Hardness: 730 lbf (3,250 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,600 lbf/in2 (80.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,410,000 lbf/in2 (9.72 GPa) Crushing Strength:...

Loblolly Pine

Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Common Name(s): Loblolly Pine Scientific Name: Pinus taeda Distribution: Southeastern United States, though also widely grown on plantations Tree Size: 100-115 ft (30-35 m) tall, 1.5-5 ft (.4-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 35 lbs/ft3 (570 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .47, .57 Janka Hardness: 690 lbf (3,070 N) Modulus of Rupture: 12,800 lbf/in2 (88.3 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,790,000 lbf/in2...