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Pine Wood: An Overall Guide

...transition. Species within this group can’t be reliably separated from one another, but it can be helpful to recognize their features in order to distinguish them from the hard pines.There are three principal species of soft pine: Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) Of the three, Eastern White Pine tends to have the finest texture (i.e., smallest diameter tracheids) and the...

Lodgepole Pine

Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Common Name(s): Lodgepole Pine, Shore Pine Scientific Name: Pinus contorta Distribution: Western North America Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter; size varies widely depending upon subspecies Average Dried Weight: 29 lbs/ft3 (465 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .38, .47 Janka Hardness: 480 lbf (2,140 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,400 lbf/in2 (64.8 MPa) Elastic Modulus:...

Jack Pine

...s: Paper (pulpwood), boxes/crates, pallets, poles, and construction lumber. Comments: Jack Pine lumber is generally rather knotty, and tends to be less desirable than other, clearer pine species within its range, such as Red Pine. Jack Pine is difficult to tell apart from some of the lighter yellow pines whose native ranges are farther west, such as Lodgepole Pine and Ponderosa Pine. Generally, dimpling on flatsawn surfaces will appear more...

Sugar Pine

...wood is rated as moderate to low in decay resistance. Workability: Sugar Pine is easy to work with both hand and machine tools. Glues and finishes well. Odor: While not nearly as pronounced as many species of Southern Yellow Pine, Sugar Pine has a faint, sweet odor while being worked. Allergies/Toxicity: Working with pine has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood...

Jeffrey Pine

...inus virginiana) Related Articles: Pine Wood: An Overall Guide Scans/Pictures: There are currently no pictures of this exact wood species, but a similar species within the Pinus genus is being substituted (P. ponderosa). If you’d like to contribute a wood sample of this specific species to be scanned, (even small pieces of veneer can be sent), please use the contact form. Ponderosa Pine (sanded) Ponderosa Pine (sealed) Ponderosa Pine (endgrain)...

Radiata Pine

Radiata Pine (Pinus radiata) Common Name(s): Radiata Pine, Monterey Pine, Insignis Pine Scientific Name: Pinus radiata Distribution: Native to central and southern coastal California; also widely planted throughout the southern hemisphere Tree Size: 80-100 ft (24-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 32 lbs/ft3 (515 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .41, .51 Janka Hardness: 710 lbf (3,150 N) Modulus of Rupture:...

Caribbean Pine

...n the CITES Appendices, and is reported by the IUCN as being a species of least concern. Common Uses: Paper (pulpwood), veneer, plywood, flooring, and construction lumber. Comments: Although not technically a southern yellow pine, Caribbean Pine is closely related to other pine species found in southeastern United States which are commonly grouped as southern yellow pine, such as Longleaf, Shortleaf, Loblolly, and Slash Pine. Related Species:...

Limber Pine

...eported by the IUCN as being a species of least concern. Common Uses: Fuelwood, boxes, and rough construction. Comments: Limber Pine is a member of the White Pine group, which includes primary timber producers such as: Sugar Pine, Western White Pine, and Eastern White Pine. But unlike it’s close relatives, Limber Pine has very little commercial value, and isn’t commonly used for lumber. Related Species: Austrian Pine (Pinus nigra)...

Ponderosa Pine

...) Sand Pine (Pinus clausa) Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata) Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii) Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra) Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Sumatran Pine (Pinus merkusii) Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana) Related Articles: Pine Wood: An Overall Guide Scans/Pictures: Ponderosa Pine (sanded) Ponderosa Pine (sealed) Ponderosa Pine (endgrain)...

Red Pine

Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) Common Name(s): Red Pine, Norway Pine Scientific Name: Pinus resinosa Distribution: Northeastern North America Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 34 lbs/ft3 (545 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .41, .55 Janka Hardness: 560 lbf (2,490 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,000 lbf/in2 (75.9 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,630,000 lbf/in2 (11.24 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,070...

Eastern White Pine

...nts: Eastern White Pine is one of the most common and widely used timbers for construction lumber in the northeast United States. It’s one of the three primary commercial species of White Pine, with the other two—Sugar Pine and Western White Pine—being found on the west coast. The long, straight trunks of Eastern White Pine were once prized for use as ship masts. The king of England’s aggravating habit of marking out and reserving...

Spruce Pine

...inus virginiana) Related Articles: Pine Wood: An Overall Guide Scans/Pictures: There are currently no pictures of this exact wood species, but a similar species within the Pinus genus is being substituted (P. clausa). If you’d like to contribute a wood sample of this specific species to be scanned, (even small pieces of veneer can be sent), please use the contact form. Sand Pine (sanded) Sand Pine (sealed) Sand Pine (endgrain) Sand Pine...

Pond Pine

Pond Pine (P. clausa pictured) Common Name(s): Pond Pine, Marsh Pine Scientific Name: Pinus serotina Distribution: Eastern United States (Altantic coastal plain regions) Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 38 lbs/ft3 (610 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .51, .61 Janka Hardness: 740 lbf (3,290 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,600 lbf/in2 (80.0 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,750,000 lbf/in2 (12.07...

Western White Pine

Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Common Name(s): Western White Pine, Idaho White Pine Scientific Name: Pinus monticola Distribution: Mountainous regions of western North America Tree Size: 100-150 ft (30-46 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 27 lbs/ft3 (435 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .35, .43 Janka Hardness: 420 lbf (1,870 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,700 lbf/in2 (66.9 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,460,000...

Pinyon Pine

...Sand Pine (Pinus clausa) Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata) Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii) Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra) Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Sumatran Pine (Pinus merkusii) Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana) Related Articles: Pine Wood: An Overall Guide Scans/Pictures: Pinyon Pine (sanded) Pinyon Pine (sealed) Pinyon Pine (endgrain) Pinyon Pine...

Longleaf Pine

...inus sylvestris) Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata) Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii) Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra) Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Sumatran Pine (Pinus merkusii) Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana) Related Articles: Pine Wood: An Overall Guide Restricted and Endangered Wood Species Scans/Pictures: Longleaf Pine (sanded) Longleaf Pine (sealed) Longleaf Pine (endgrain)...

Virginia Pine

Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana) Common Name(s): Virginia Pine, Scrub Pine Scientific Name: Pinus virginiana Distribution: Eastern United States Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 32 lbs/ft3 (515 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .45, .51 Janka Hardness: 740 lbf (3,290 N) Modulus of Rupture: 13,000 lbf/in2 (89.7 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,520,000 lbf/in2 (10.48 GPa) Crushing Strength:...

Pitch Pine

...Sand Pine (Pinus clausa) Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata) Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii) Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra) Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Sumatran Pine (Pinus merkusii) Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana) Related Articles: Pine Wood: An Overall Guide Scans/Pictures: Pitch Pine (sanded) Pitch Pine (sealed) Pitch Pine (endgrain) Pitch Pine...

Sumatran Pine

Sumatran Pine (P. sylvestris pictured) Common Name(s): Sumatran Pine, Merkus Pine Scientific Name: Pinus merkusii Distribution: Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia) Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 44 lbs/ft3 (710 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .57, .71 Janka Hardness: 950 lbf (4,230 N) Modulus of Rupture: 13,980 lbf/in2 (96.4 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 2,161,000 lbf/in2 (14.90...

Table Mountain Pine

...inus flexilis) Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) Ocote Pine (Pinus oocarpa) Patula Pine (Pinus patula) Pinyon Pine (Pinus edulis) Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida) Pond Pine (Pinus serotina) Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) Radiata Pine (Pinus radiata) Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) Sand Pine (Pinus clausa) Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata)...

Scots Pine

...ta) Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) Sand Pine (Pinus clausa) Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata) Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii) Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra) Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Sumatran Pine (Pinus merkusii) Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana) Related Articles: Pine Wood: An Overall Guide Scans/Pictures: Scots Pine (sanded) Scots Pine (sealed) Scots Pine (endgrain) Scots Pine...

Maritime Pine

...ticles: Pine Wood: An Overall Guide Scans/Pictures: There are currently no pictures of this exact wood species, but a similar species within the Pinus genus is being substituted (P. sylvestris). If you’d like to contribute a wood sample of this specific species to be scanned, (even small pieces of veneer can be sent), please use the contact form. Scots Pine (sanded) Scots Pine (sealed)...

Shortleaf Pine

...adiata) Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) Sand Pine (Pinus clausa) Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii) Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra) Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Sumatran Pine (Pinus merkusii) Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana) Related Articles: Pine Wood: An Overall Guide Scans/Pictures: Shortleaf Pine (sanded) Shortleaf Pine (sealed) Shortleaf Pine (endgrain)...

Slash Pine

...a) Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) Sand Pine (Pinus clausa) Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata) Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra) Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Sumatran Pine (Pinus merkusii) Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana) Related Articles: Pine Wood: An Overall Guide Scans/Pictures: Slash Pine (sanded) Slash Pine (sealed) Slash Pine (endgrain) Slash Pine...

Austrian Pine

Austrian Pine (Pinus nigra) Common Name(s): Austrian Pine, European Black Pine Scientific Name: Pinus nigra Distribution: Mediterranean regions of Europe and Asia Minor Tree Size: 65-115 ft (20-35 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 30 lbs/ft3 (475 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .39, .48 Janka Hardness: 660 lbf (2,920 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,340 lbf/in2 (64.4 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,568,000 lbf/in2 (10.81...

Ocote Pine

Ocote Pine (P. radiata pictured) Common Name(s): Ocote Pine, Mexican Yellow Pine Scientific Name: Pinus oocarpa Distribution: Mexico and Central America; also grown on plantations Tree Size: 80-115 ft (24-35 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 44 lbs/ft3 (700 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .55, .70 Janka Hardness: 950 lbf (4,240 N) Modulus of Rupture: 14,720 lbf/in2 (101.5 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 2,209,000...

Khasi Pine

Khasi Pine (P. sylvestris pictured) Common Name(s): Khasi Pine, Benguet Pine Scientific Name: Pinus kesiya (syn. P. insularis) Distribution: India and southeast Asia; also grown on plantations in Africa and South America Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 3-4 ft (1-1.2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 38 lbs/ft3 (610 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .45, .61 Janka Hardness: 670 lbf (3,000 N) Modulus of Rupture: 12,610 lbf/in2...

Patula Pine

...e has been reported to cause allergic skin reactions and/or asthma-like symptoms in some people. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Pricing/Availability: Much like Radiata Pine, Patula Pine has a somewhat narrow natural distribution which is greatly expanded through plantation trees. Patula Pine is grown for basic construction purposes and should be available in tropical and sub-tropical...

Sand Pine

...d Pine (Pinus resinosa) Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata) Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii) Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra) Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Sumatran Pine (Pinus merkusii) Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana) Related Articles: Pine Wood: An Overall Guide Scans/Pictures: Sand Pine (sanded) Sand Pine (sealed) Sand Pine (endgrain) Sand Pine...

Loblolly Pine

...s radiata) Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) Sand Pine (Pinus clausa) Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata) Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii) Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra) Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Sumatran Pine (Pinus merkusii) Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana) Related Articles: Pine Wood: An Overall Guide Scans/Pictures: Loblolly Pine (sanded) Loblolly Pine...