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Black Ash

Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) Common Name(s): Black Ash Scientific Name: Fraxinus nigra Distribution: Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 34 lbs/ft3 (545 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .45, .55 Janka Hardness: 850 lbf (3,780 N) Modulus of Rupture: 12,600 lbf/in2 (86.9 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,600,000 lbf/in2 (11.00 GPa) Crushing Strength:...

Ash Wood: Black, White, and Everything in Between

Among the most common species of ash that are seen commercially, some basic divisions can be made; the first is between White Ash (Fraxinus americana) and Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra). White Ash tends to have a lighter heartwood color, and wider spaced growth rings. By contrast, the heartwood color of Black Ash tends to be slightly darker, and the growth rings are typically much closer together. White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) White Ash (endgrain) Black Ash (endgrain) Additionally, White Ash tends to have winged parenchyma connecting the outermost latewood pores, while this latewood connectivity is largely absent from Black Ash (see below). White Ash (endgrain 10x) Black Ash (endgrain 10x) Although Black Ash can be separated from White Ash on the basis of macroscopic anatomy, many other species of ash cannot, and they share the same traits as White Ash. These indistinguishable species include: European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Oregon Ash (F. latifolia), and Green Ash (F. pennsylvanica). In many instances, knowing the geographic source of the wood will help differentiate these species, (with the exception of Green Ash, which has a natural range that largely overlaps that of White Ash). One variant of [...]

Blue Ash

Blue Ash (F. americana pictured) Common Name(s): Blue Ash Scientific Name: Fraxinus quadrangulata Distribution: Midwestern United States Tree Size: 50-80 ft (15-25 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1.0 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 40 lbs/ft3 (640 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .53, .64 Janka Hardness: 1,290 lbf (5,740 N) Modulus of Rupture: 13,800 lbf/in2 (95.2 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,400,000 lbf/in2 (9.66 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,980...

Green Ash

Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) Common Name(s): Green Ash Scientific Name: Fraxinus pennsylvanica Distribution: Eastern and Central North America Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 40 lbs/ft3 (640 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .53, .64 Janka Hardness: 1,200 lbf (5,340 N) Modulus of Rupture: 14,100 lbf/in2 (97.2 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,660,000 lbf/in2 (11.40 GPa) Crushing...

White Ash

...White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Common Name(s): White Ash, American White Ash...

Pumpkin Ash

Pumpkin Ash (F. americana pictured) Common Name(s): Pumpkin Ash Scientific Name: Fraxinus profunda Distribution: Eastern North America Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1.0 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 36 lbs/ft3 (575 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .48, .58 Janka Hardness: 990 lbf (4,400 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,100 lbf/in2 (76.6 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,270,000 lbf/in2 (8.76 GPa) Crushing Strength: 5,690...

Olive Ash

The term Olive Ash does not refer to any specific species of Ash (Fraxinus genus), but instead is in reference to the darker, streaked heartwood found in some Ash trees, which tends to resemble the wood of Olive trees in the Olea genus. And it should come as little surprise that Olive Ash can be a dead ringer for actual Olive (with the exception of the porous grain structure, which gives its true identity away easily), because both Ash and...

European Ash

European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) Common Name(s): European Ash, Common Ash Scientific Name: Fraxinus excelsior Distribution: Europe and southwestern Asia Tree Size: 65-115 ft (20-35 m) tall, 3-6 ft (1-2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 42 lbs/ft3 (680 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .49, .68 Janka Hardness: 1,480 lbf (6,580 N) Modulus of Rupture: 15,020 lbf/in2 (103.6 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,785,000 lbf/in2 (12.31 GPa) Crushing...

Tamo Ash

Tamo Ash (Fraxinus mandshurica) Common Name(s): Tamo Ash, Japanese Ash, Manchurian Ash Scientific Name: Fraxinus mandshurica (sometimes spelled mandschurica) Distribution: Northern Asia (China, Korea, Japan, and Russia) Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 35 lbs/ft3 (560 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .50, .56 Janka Hardness: 1,010 lbf (4,490 N)* *Estimated hardness based on...

Oregon Ash

Oregon Ash (Fraxinus latifolia) Common Name(s): Oregon Ash Scientific Name: Fraxinus latifolia Distribution: Western North America Tree Size: 65-80 ft (20-25 m) tall, 1-3 ft (.3-1.0 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 38 lbs/ft3 (610 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .50, .61 Janka Hardness: 1,160 lbf (5,160 N) Modulus of Rupture: 12,700 lbf/in2 (87.6 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,360,000 lbf/in2 (9.38 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,040...

Mountain Ash

Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) Common Name(s): Mountain Ash, Victorian Ash Scientific Name: Eucalyptus regnans Distribution: Southeastern Australia, also grown on plantations Tree Size: 230-330 ft (70-100 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 42 lbs/ft3 (680 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .49, .68 Janka Hardness: 1,210 lbf (5,400 N) Modulus of Rupture: 14,010 lbf/in2 (96.7 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 2,033,000...

Swamp Ash

The term “Swamp Ash” does not refer to any particular species of ash (Fraxinus genus), but is generally used by luthiers to describe lightweight wood yielded from ash trees which are usually found in wet or swampy areas. Weight of Ash Types Compared Swamp Ash (guitar) Average Dried Weight: less than 30-33.6 lbs/ft3 (481-538 kg/m3) Board-foot weight: less than 2.5-2.8 pounds White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Average Dried Weight: 42...

WOOD! book: Identifying and Using Hundreds of Woods Worldwide

NOW AVAILABLE ON AMAZON  272 Pages8.5" x 11" page size (22 cm x 28 cm).Full color throughout; Hundreds of images. HardcoverWith a sewn binding and jacket-less design to stand up to the rigors of nearly any wood shop. $35 PriceRobust, trusted ordering through Amazon. Free domestic shipping; reasonable int’l rates.* Over 350 woods coveredOver 100 full-page wood profilesOver 100 half-page wood profilesData on over 150 related species * Shipping currently not available to Canada or Australia. WOOD SPECIES COVERED IN THE BOOK Full-page profile Half-page profile Mechanical data listed European Silver Fir (Abies alba) Pacific Silver Fir (Abies amabilis) Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea) White Fir (Abies concolor) Grand Fir (Abies grandis) Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa) California Red Fir (Abies magnifica) Noble Fir (Abies procera) Gidgee (Acacia cambagei) Koa (Acacia koa) Mangium (Acacia mangium) Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) Australian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) Yarran (Acacia omalophylla) [...]

Worldwide Woods, a new poster Temporarily unavailable! Please use the email signup list below to be notified as soon as the poster becomes available for sale. Over 500 worldwide woods pictured 24" wide (61 cm) x 36" tall (91 cm) Divided into 8 geographical regions $30 (shipped by Alder, Red (Alnus rubra) Ash, Black (Fraxinus nigra) Ash, Green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) Ash, White (Fraxinus americana) Aspen, Bigtooth (Populus grandidentata) Aspen, Quaking (Populus tremuloides) Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) Basswood (Tilia americana) Beech, American (Fagus grandifolia) Birch, Paper (Betula papyrifera) Birch, Yellow (Betula alleghaniensis) Box Elder (Acer negundo) Buckeye, Yellow (Aesculus flava) Buckthorn, Cascara (Rhamnus purshiana) Butternut (Juglans cinerea) Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa) Cedar, Atlantic White (Chamaecyparis thyoides) Cedar, Eastern Red (Juniperus virginiana) Cedar, Incense (Calocedrus decurrens) Cedar, Northern White (Thuja occidentalis) Cedar, Port Orford (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) Cedar, Western Red (Thuja plicata) Cedar, Yellow (Cupressus nootkatensis) Cherry, Black (Prunus serotina) Chestnut, American (Castanea dentata) Chinkapin (Chrysolepis chrysophylla) Coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus) [...]

About the Project

How "The Wood Database" got started... It all began back in April of 2007; I had recently checked out some wood identification books at the library, and I wanted a way to organize all of the most helpful data into a single reference file on my computer. After cataloging the wood’s common and scientific names, weight, approximate cost, and any other notes or observations that I thought were unusual to that species of wood, I printed the file out and used it as a reference guide in my shop. (At that time, I was involved in making psalteries—a type of stringed musical instrument.) Over time, I found myself referencing this chart so many times, and I had made so many additions and alterations to it—adding my own observations, density readings, etc.—that it became nearly indispensable. Many times when a project would come up, I would consult the chart as a guide to help me use the most appropriate wood possible. How my wood list grew into an online projectEventually, I realized that all of the data that I found in most wood identification books available to the public [...]

Wood Allergies and Toxicity

by Eric Meier "Not to omit any one of them, the yew is similar to these other trees in general appearance . . . It is an ascertained fact that travellers' vessels, made in Gaul of this wood, for the purpose of holding wine, have caused the death of those who used them." –Pliny the Elder, from Naturalis Historia, ca. 77 AD Looking at the above quotation, (taken from a writing nearly two thousand years old), ought to bring—at the very least—a small bit of respect and attention to the matter of safety as it pertains to wood toxicity. If this subject has been known and reported as "ascertained fact" since ancient history, how much more ought we to take heed in modern times, considering that we have so many more well-developed means of communication and testing? Wood Toxicity and Allergen Chart Below you'll find a chart of various wood species, along with their reported effects and properties. The information on this chart has been compiled from many sources, with references given at the bottom. When viewing the chart, please keep the follow in mind: Just because any given wood is not listed on the chart, does not mean that [...]


Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) Common Name(s): Hackberry, Sugarberry Scientific Name: Celtis occidentalis, Celtis laevigata Distribution: Eastern North America Tree Size: 40-60 ft (12-18 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 37 lbs/ft3 (595 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .49, .60 Janka Hardness: 880 lbf (3,910 N) Modulus of Rupture: 11,000 lbf/in2 (75.9 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,190,000 lbf/in2 (8.21 GPa)...

Box Elder

Box Elder (Acer negundo) Common Name(s): Box Elder, Boxelder Maple, Manitoba Maple, Ash-leaved Maple Scientific Name: Acer negundo Distribution: North America (most commonly in central and eastern United States) Tree Size:35-80 ft (10-25 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 30 lbs/ft3 (485 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .42, .49 Janka Hardness: 720 lbf (3,200 N) Modulus of Rupture: 8,010 lbf/in2 (55.2 MPa)*...

The Periodic Table of Wood

Woods featured on the poster: [expand title="NORTH AMERICA (27 species)"] Alder, Red Ash, White Baldcypress Basswood Birch, Yellow Box Elder Butternut Cedar, Eastern Red Cedar, Western Red Cherry, Black Chestnut, American Elm, Red Fir, Douglas Hickory, Shagbark Locust, Black Maple, Hard Oak, Red Oak, White Osage Orange Pine, Southern Yellow Poplar, Yellow Redwood Sassafras Spruce, Sitka Sycamore Walnut, Black Walnut, Claro [/expand] [expand title="CENTRAL AMERICA (20 species)"] Balsa Bocote Cedar, Spanish Chakte Viga Chechen Cocobolo Goncalo Alves Jatoba Katalox Kingwood Leopardwood Lignum Vitae Mahogany, Honduran Mahogany, Santos Monkeypod Primavera Purpleheart Redheart Rosewood, Honduran Ziricote [/expand] [expand title="SOUTH AMERICA (18 species)"] Bloodwood Canarywood Cebil Cumaru Greenheart Imbuia Ipe Lacewood Macacauba Marblewood Mesquite, Black Pau Ferro Rosewood, Brazilian Snakewood Tulipwood Verawood Walnut, Peruvian Yellowheart [/expand] [expand title="EUROPE (13 species)"] Ash, European Beech, European Birch, Masur Boxwood Cedar of Lebanon Elm, Wych Oak, English Olive Plane, London Spruce, Norway Sycamore Maple Walnut, English Yew, English [/expand] [expand title="AFRICA (20 species)"] Afrormosia Afzelia Anigre Blackwood, African Bubinga Ebony, Gaboon Iroko Limba Mahogany, African Makore Mansonia Movingui Muninga Ovangkol Padauk Pink Ivory Sapele Walnut, [...]

The Truth Behind Wood Identification

by Eric Meier After having personally worked with hundreds of wood species, (obviously some much more than others), and having read a number of books and articles on wood identification, I've come to an unsettling conclusion: it seems that the more I learn and discover, the more I realize how very little I know. The more accurate and thorough my identification process becomes, the more certain I become that I really cannot guarantee that I am correct. So just what is the truth behind wood identification? The truth is, it's a crapshoot. Probably the most common means of identifying wood among woodworkers is to simply eyeball the facegrain of the wood sample, and allow some sort of unspoken instinct or imperceptible intuition to just pop into our heads with the right answer. Using this quasi-magic "second-nature" method to accurately identify wood down to a genus and species level is not only unscientific, unhelpful, and unteachable, it's a crapshoot. Roll the dice: wood identification is not too unlike a game of craps I know, that's not what you wanted to hear. You wanted me to tell you that with all this data, with all these pictures, facts, and identification techniques, surely there is a foolproof method of identifying a [...]

Differences Between Hard Maple and Soft Maple

ad by Eric MeierPerhaps you've seen a type of lumber for sale known as "Soft Maple," and were wondering: what's the difference between between this Soft Maple and Hard Maple? Just how soft is it? Why does it cost about half as much as Hard Maple? How can I tell the two apart?Well, here are the answers: What's the Difference? Hardness of Maples Compared Telling the Two Types of Maples Apart  What's the Difference?First of all, the term "Soft Maple" does not refer to any specific species of maple, but rather, it's a broad term which includes several different species of maple. The term "Soft Maple" is merely used to differentiate these species from Hard Maple.Hard Maple, on the other hand, typically refers to one specific type of maple species: Acer saccharum. Hard Maple is also known as Rock Maple or Sugar Maple, (this is the same tree which is tapped to get maple syrup). Besides this one species of maple, the only other species that is sometimes considered in the grouping of Hard Maple in the United States is Black Maple (Acer nigrum). Black Maple is so closely related to Hard Maple that some even consider it to be [...]

Hardwood Anatomy

by Eric Meier ©OutlineVessel elements: porosity, arrangement, size, frequency, contentsParenchyma: apotracheal, paratrachealRays: width, spacing, aggregate, noded, storiedWood fibersMonocots: palm, bamboo In sharp contrast to the simple anatomy of softwoods, the hardwoods of the world exhibit a dazzling array of endgrain patterns and intricate motifs; and it’s in this complexity that the challenge (and joy) of wood identification really comes alive. An unknown hardwood sample could be just about anything under the sun, yet as each anatomical feature is considered, anything is narrowed down to something.That is to say, throughout the identification process, the more observations that can be made and classified about a hardwood sample, the more and more the field of possible candidates narrows. Ultimately, the point is reached where no further refinements can be recorded, and either a clear identification emerges, or a handful of possibilities remain.As discussed on the page The Truth Behind Wood Identification, a positive identification down to the species level isn’t always possible, but generally, anything can be narrowed down to a more descriptive something, and in many cases, the genus or family of the wood can usually be ascertained. To begin this process, the largest and most conspicuous anatomical elements are examined first. [...]

Elm Wood: Hard and Soft

by Eric MeierThe most basic division of elm species is between hard and soft elm. The wood of the hard elms (sometimes referred to as rock elm) generally range from 41 to 47 lbs/ft3, while soft elms typically have a density from 35 to 38 lbs/ft3. Hard Elms: Soft Elms: Winged Elm (Ulmus alata) Cedar Elm (Ulmus crassifolia) Rock Elm (Ulmus thomasii) American Elm (Ulmus americana) Wych Elm (Ulmus glabra) English Elm (Ulmus procera) Red Elm (Ulmus rubra) Dutch Elm (Ulmus × hollandica) Anatomical Identification The primary element for distinguishing elm types is found in the earlywood pores. For elms in North America, hard elms are characterized by smaller earlywood pores that are closer in size to the latewood pores. The earlywood is generally in a single, broken row. Cedar Elm (endgrain 10x), a hard elm Red Elm (endgrain 10x), a soft elm By contrast, soft elms tend to have larger earlywood pores. The earlywood may be one or two rows wide, as in American Elm (Ulmus americana), or two to four pores wide, as in Red Elm (U. rubra).However, elm species from Europe and Asia do not always follow the same earlywood patterns as the [...]


Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) Common Name(s): Sassafras Scientific Name: Sassafras albidum Distribution: Eastern United States Tree Size: 50-65 ft (15-20 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1.0 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 31 lbs/ft3 (495 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .42, .50 Janka Hardness: 630 lbf (2,800 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,000 lbf/in2 (62.1 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,120,000 lbf/in2 (7.72 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,600 lbf/in2 (45.5...


Northern Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa) Common Name(s): Catalpa Scientific Name: Catalpa spp. (C. speciosa and C. bignonioides) Distribution: Native to eastern United States, but naturalized throughout North America Tree Size: 50-100 ft (15-30 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 29 lbs/ft3 (460 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .38, .46 Janka Hardness: 550 lbf (2,450 N) Modulus of Rupture: 9,400 lbf/in2 (64.8...

Wood Pricing/Availability

Disclaimer: The Wood Database does not buy or sell any wood. Although this website contains links to other wood vendors, there is no wood directly for sale through this website. Please do not contact me about pricing or availability on a specific wood species. Pricing Much like other commodities, the price of different wood species will change over time. Because of this reality, wood prices have intentionally been described in the vaguest possible terms, leaving room for variability of wood prices. Additionally, wood prices will also vary depending on your location—what may be a lengthy (and expensive) import process for a tropical hardwood by one person may be considered a local (and cheap) utility wood by another. Out of necessity, most pricing is written from an American perspective. (An exception to this would be some European species that have nearly-identical domestic species, which would seldom if ever need to be exported, such as ash or beech—in these cases, it is assumed that such lumber is bought domestically.) There are few different tiers to consider when considering the price of a wood species: Domestic Woods: Generally wood that is harvested locally—whether that be in the same county, state, or country—is the least expensive; this makes perfect sense [...]

What is Wood?

by Eric Meier Hardwoods and Softwoods Tree Growth Sapwood and Heartwood Surfaces of Wood Grain Appearance Rays It’s common knowledge that wood comes from trees. What may not be so apparent is the structure of the wood itself, and the individual components that make up any given piece of lumber. Unlike a mostly homogenous piece of foamboard, MDF, or other man-made material, wood is an organic material, and has many distinct characteristics which will be helpful to learn. Hardwoods and Softwoods An immediate and broad distinction that can be made between types of trees (and wood) is the label of hardwood or softwood. This is somewhat of a misnomer, as the label is actually just a separation between angiosperms (flowering plants such as maple, oak, or rosewood), and conifers (cone-bearing trees such as pine, spruce, or fir). Hardwoods (angiosperms) have broad-leaved foliage, and tend to be deciduous—that is, they lose their leaves in the autumn. (However, many tropical hardwood species exist which are evergreen—they maintain their leaves year-round.) Additionally, hardwood trees tend to have a branched or divided trunk, referred to as a dendritic form. This White Oak tree—with a branching form, and leaves that drop in the autumn—is [...]

Wood Trading

by Eric Meier (IWCS #9701)Are you interested in getting or using new and unusual wood species? Are you a wood collector? If so, maybe we can trade. If you are a member of the International Wood Collectors Society (IWCS), then you probably already know that the standard size for wood samples is 6" (long) x 3" (wide) x 1/2" (thick). What I've got for tradePlease note that this is not a for-sale list—I'm only looking to extend my diversity of wood species and therefore multiply the reach of the site. For purchasing wood samples, I'd direct you to other sources such as Gary Green, Carlton McLendon Inc, or the man who quite literally wrote the book on wood collecting, Alan Curtis. # Common Name Scientific Name Notes 001Pacific silver firAbies amabilisknot002Pacific silver firAbies amabilisapproximately 2.4" wide006Box elderAcer negundodefects007Red mapleAcer rubrumslight defects008Hard mapleAcer saccharum009Mountain mapleAcer spicatumglued up (two piece), defects010Ambrosia mapleAcer sp.011Ambrosia mapleAcer sp.streaked, but without bug holes012Yellow buckeyeAesculus flava (= A. octandra)191ChamfutaAfzelia quanzensis013KauriAgathis australisswamp-recovered Kauri015LebbeckAlbizia lebbeck158LebbeckAlbizia lebbeck2 7/8" wide016Black sirisAlbizia odoratissima017BoonareeAlectryon oleifoliusglued up (two piece), 7/16" thick, 5 3/4" long018BoonareeAlectryon oleifoliusmostly sapwood019BulokeAllocasuarina luehmanniiminor defects020BulokeAllocasuarina luehmanniidefects021BulokeAllocasuarina luehmannii022Red alderAlnus rubraknot one side259Emien Alstonia congensis2 7/8" [...]

Restricted and Endangered Wood Species

by Eric MeierThe issue and ethics surrounding the utilization of trees for lumber is oftentimes both expansive and ambiguous. Not only are there questions of sustainability (i.e., given the current rate of harvesting, can a particular species continue to reproduce at a sustainable rate so that demand will not outstrip supply?), but there's also the matter of habitat destruction (i.e., even if a tree species can be sustainably harvested from the wild, would doing so destroy or endanger other species in the same habitat?).Further mixed into this murky cocktail is the fact that for some countries—especially poorer third-world countries—lumber is big business, and placing a restriction on such a lucrative sector of their commerce would be seen as counter-productive, and consequently actual or potential levels of exploitation may not be easily or readily discovered.However, despite the complexity of the issue, and the incomplete or even possibly faulty data, some information is better than no information. With these shortcomings in mind, there are two international entities that will be used and cited on this website, CITES and the IUCN.CITESAn international agreement between governments was formed in 1973, called the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species, or CITES for short. CITES has three different levels of protection [...]


Coolibah burl (Eucalyptus coolabah) Common Name(s): Coolibah, Coolibah burl Scientific Name: Eucalyptus coolabah, Eucalyptus microtheca Distribution: Australia Tree Size: 25-50 ft (8-15 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight: 68 lbs/ft3 (1,085 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .81, 1.09 Janka Hardness: 3,730 lbf (16,590 N) Modulus of Rupture: No data available Elastic Modulus: No data available Crushing Strength:...