Common Name(s): Red Spruce, Adirondack Spruce
Scientific Name: Picea rubens
Distribution: Eastern North America
Tree Size: 80-110 ft (24-34 m) tall, 2-4.5 ft (.6-1.4 m) trunk diameter
Average Dried Weight: 27 lbs/ft3 (435 kg/m3)
Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .37, .43
Janka Hardness: 490 lbf (2,180 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 9,580 lbf/in2 (66.0 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,560,000 lbf/in2 (10.76 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 4,870 lbf/in2 (33.6 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 3.8%, Tangential: 7.8%, Volumetric: 11.8%, T/R Ratio: 2.1
Color/Appearance: Red Spruce is typically a creamy white, with a hint of yellow and/or red.
Grain/Texture: Red Spruce has a fine, even texture, and a consistently straight grain.
Rot Resistance: Heartwood is rated as being slightly resistant to non-resistant to decay.
Workability: Easy to work, as long as there are no knots present. Glues and finishes well, though it can give poor (blotchy and inconsistent) results when being stained due to its closed pore structure. A sanding sealer, gel stain, or toner is recommended when coloring Spruce.
Odor: No characteristic odor.
Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Spruce in the Picea genus has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include skin irritation and/or respiratory disorders. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.
Pricing/Availability: Construction grade spruce is cheap and easy to find. However, quartersawn clear pieces—free from knots—are much more expensive. Quartersawn billets of instrument-grade Red (Adirondack) Spruce can easily exceed the cost of most all domestic hardwoods in terms of per board-foot cost.
Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, and is reported by the IUCN as being a species of least concern.
Common Uses: Paper (pulpwood), construction lumber, millwork, crates, Christmas trees, and musical instrument soundboards.
- Black Spruce (Picea mariana)
- Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannii)
- Norway Spruce (Picea abies)
- Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis)
- White Spruce (Picea glauca)