Common Name(s): Cedar Elm
Scientific Name: Ulmus crassifolia
Distribution: South-central North America
Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter
Average Dried Weight: 41 lbs/ft3 (655 kg/m3)
Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .54, .66
Janka Hardness: 1,320 lbf (5,870 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 13,500 lbf/in2 (93.1 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,480,000 lbf/in2 (10.21 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 6,020 lbf/in2 (41.5 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 4.7%, Tangential: 10.2%, Volumetric: 15.4%, T/R Ratio: 2.2
Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light to medium brown, sometimes with a hint of red. Sapwood is a pale white or cream color.
Grain/Texture: Has a medium texture and moderate-sized pores. Grain is sometimes straight, but commonly interlocked.
Rot Resistance: Rated as moderately durable to non-durable in regard to heartwood decay, but is susceptible to insect attack, and living trees are very commonly destroyed by Dutch elm disease.
Workability: Can be a challenge to work because of interlocked grain, especially on quartersawn surfaces. Planing can cause tearout and/or fuzzy surfaces. Glues, stains, and finishes well. Responds well to steam bending.
Odor: Elm usually has a strong, unpleasant smell when green; though once dried has very little odor.
Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Elm in the Ulmus genus has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.
Pricing/Availability: Should be moderately priced, though availability from mature trees has been greatly diminished by Dutch elm disease.
Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Common Uses: Boxes, baskets, furniture, hockey sticks, veneer, wood pulp, and papermaking.
Comments: Elm trees are commonly infected with Dutch elm disease, a fungal disease spread by elm bark beetles. D.E.D. has wiped out millions of Elm trees worldwide.