Black Oak (Quercus velutina)

Black Oak (Quercus velutina)

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Common Name(s): Black Oak, Eastern Black Oak

Scientific Name: Quercus velutina

Distribution: Eastern North America

Tree Size: 65-80 ft (20-25 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter

Average Dried Weight: 45 lbs/ft3 (715 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .56, .71

Janka Hardness: 1,210 lbf (5,380 N)

Modulus of Rupture: 14,430 lbf/in2 (99.5 MPa)

Elastic Modulus: 1,736,000 lbf/in2 (11.97 GPa)

Crushing Strength: 6,450 lbf/in2 (44.5 MPa)

Shrinkage:Radial: 4.4%, Tangential: 11.1%, Volumetric: 15.1%, T/R Ratio: 2.5

Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium reddish-brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Conversely, White Oak tends to be slightly more olive-colored, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of oak.

Grain/Texture: Has medium-to-large pores and a fairly coarse grain.

Endgrain: Ring-porous; 2-4 rows of large, exclusively solitary earlywood pores, numerous small latewood pores in radial arrangement; tyloses absent; growth rings distinct; rays large and visible without lens; apotracheal parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates (short lines between rays).

Rot Resistance: Falls somewhere between slightly durable to non-durable. Red oaks such as Black Oak do not have the level of decay and rot resistance that White Oaks possess.

Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well.

Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. Most find it appealing.

Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.

Pricing/Availability: Slightly less expensive than White Oak, Red Oak is in good/sustainable supply and is moderately priced. Thicker 8/4 planks, or quartersawn boards are slightly more expensive per board foot.

Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Common Uses: Cabinetry, furniture, interior trim, flooring, and veneer.

Comments: Not to be confused with Bog Oak (which is actually black in color), Black Oak falls into the red oak group, and shares many of the same traits as Red Oak (Quercus rubra). Red Oak, along with its brother White Oak, are commonly used domestic lumber species. Hard, strong, and moderately priced, Red Oak presents an exceptional value to woodworkers—which explains why it is so widely used in cabinet and furniture making.

Related Species:

Related Articles:

Scans/Pictures:

Black Oak (Quercus velutina)

Black Oak (sanded)

Black Oak (sealed)

Black Oak (sealed)

Black Oak (endgrain)

Black Oak (endgrain)

Black Oak (endgrain 10x)

Black Oak (endgrain 10x)