Common Name(s): Black Ironwood, Leadwood
Scientific Name: Krugiodendron ferreum
Distribution: Southern Florida, Caribbean, and Central America
Tree Size: 20-30 ft (6-9 m) tall, .5-1 ft (.2-.3 m) trunk diameter
Average Dried Weight: 84 lbs/ft3 (1,355 kg/m3)
Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): 1.07, 1.35
Janka Hardness: 3,660 lbf (16,280 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 18,200 lbf/in2 (125.5 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 2,966,000 lbf/in2 (20.46 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 9,940 lbf/in2 (68.6 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 6.2%, Tangential: 8.0%, Volumetric: 11.6%, T/R Ratio: 1.3
Color/Appearance: Black Ironwood’s heartwood can be a range of reds, oranges, violets, and browns. Pale yellowish white sapwood is clearly demarcated from heartwood.
Grain/Texture: Black Ironwood has a straight and even grain with a very fine texture and high natural luster.
Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; small to very small pores in no specific arrangement; solitary and radial multiples of 2-3; gum deposits in heartwood pores present; growth rings usually indistinct; rays not visible without lens; parenchyma vasicentric.
Rot Resistance: Reported to be very resistant to decay, and also resistant to termites.
Workability: High cutting resistance, and difficult to work due to density. Turns and finishes well.
Odor: No characteristic odor.
Pricing/Availability: Black Ironwood tends to be a very small tree, barely exceeding the size of a shrub. Because of it’s small size and high density, it’s not sold commercially. Small pieces may be available for hobbyist or specialty purposes within its natural range.
Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Common Uses: Firewood, veneer, and small turned objects.
Comments: Among the heaviest woods on earth, Black Ironwood is found in southern Florida, making it the heaviest wood in the United States, (along with the unrelated Desert Ironwood perhaps being a close second).