Norfolk Island Pine (Araucaria heterophylla)

Hoop Pine (A. heterophylla pictured)

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Common Name(s): Hoop Pine

Scientific Name: Araucaria cunninghamii

Distribution: Eastern Australia and New Guinea (also grown on plantations)

Tree Size: 100-200 ft (30-60 m) tall, 3-6 ft (1-1.8 m) trunk diameter

Average Dried Weight: 31 lbs/ft3 (500 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .39, .50

Janka Hardness: 750 lbf (3,320 N)

Modulus of Rupture: 12,320 lbf/in2 (85.0 MPa)

Elastic Modulus: 1,706,000 lbf/in2 (11.77 GPa)

Crushing Strength: 6,800 lbf/in2 (46.9 MPa)

Shrinkage: Radial: 3.4%, Tangential: 5.4%, Volumetric: 9.1%, T/R Ratio: 1.6

Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light brown, sometimes with a yellow or red hue. Paler sapwood isn’t clearly defined. Sometimes afflicted with blue/gray fungal staining, particularly if not dried properly. (In certain applications this staining is considered decorative, particularly when the wood also features contrasting reddish knots.)

Grain/Texture: Grain is usually straight to interlocked, with a fine to medium uniform texture. Moderate natural luster.

Endgrain: Resin canals absent; earlywood to latewood transition gradual, color contrast low; tracheid diameter medium-large.

Rot Resistance: Rated as non-durable to perishable; poor insect resistance. Also susceptible to fungal staining.

Workability: Clear sections of wood are easy to work with hand and machine tools. Sections with knots can be problematic and result in tearout or uneven sanding due to the difference in density of the two regions. Glues, finishes, and turns well.

Odor: No characteristic odor.

Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, wood in the Araucaria genus has been reported to cause skin irritation. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.

Pricing/Availability: Plantation grown trees are regularly harvested for lumber, though the wood is seldom imported to North America. Expect prices to be higher than comparable domestic softwoods.

Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, and is reported by the IUCN as being a species of least concern.

Common Uses: Furniture, plywood, paper (pulpwood), turned objects, and small specialty wood items.

Comments: Although the common name indicates this species is a pine, it’s not technically a true pine in the Pinus genus, which is essentially restricted to the northern hemisphere. However, Hoop Pine is a member of the Araucaria genus, which could be considered a southern hemisphere counterpart to the Pinus genus.

Related Species:

Related Articles:

None available.

Scans/Pictures: There are currently no pictures of this exact wood species, but a similar species within the Araucaria genus is being substituted (A. heterophylla). If you’d like to contribute a wood sample of this specific species to be scanned, (even small pieces of veneer can be sent), please use the contact form.

Norfolk Island Pine (Araucaria heterophylla)

Norfolk Island Pine (sanded)

Norfolk Island Pine (sealed)

Norfolk Island Pine (sealed)

Norfolk Island Pine (endgrain)

Norfolk Island Pine (endgrain)

Norfolk Island Pine (endgrain 10x)

Norfolk Island Pine (endgrain 10x)